A discourse analysis of semi-structured interviews with professors of 9 Russian universities has been conducted. The analysis focused on the narratives about student attrition and its causes and revealed the generally accusing nature of professors’ discourses. All narratives can be integrated and described under the metaphor of a trial. In the most blatant form, the discourse is constructed in a prosecutor style, but attorney- and judge-like speeches also blame students for the high attrition rates. All the three types of discourse build figurative barriers between the university and professors on the one hand and students on the other. These barriers encourage professors to feel uninvolved in student attrition. None of the discourse types phrased the university mission or problematized the principles and goals of university activities. We suggest that the “bad student” discourse reflects some real problems associated with massification of education and with inevitable changes to the student body. Professor discourse analysis makes it possible to assume that response to these changes is restricted to stating the problems and disassociating oneself from them. Construction of figurative barriers may result in professors’ self-distancing not only from students but also from the changes affecting the education system. Such self-distancing complicates the process of adaptation to changes, making it poorly controllable.
Against the background of change in higher education public subsidy principles and of intensifying differentiation between higher education institutions, it is now becoming ever more urgent to study dynamics of public demand for higher education under conditions of population decline and decrease in families capacity to pay. The article considers current Educational Policies Theoretical and Applied Research318 АННОТАцИИ СТАТЕй НА АНГЛИйСКОМ ЯЗыКЕ trends in public demand and how they influence financial security and restructuring processes in the Russian higher education system. The study enabled to highlight transformation of the professional education market, its transition from an expanding phase to a contracting one. Changes in the professional education market develop nowadays under the influence of differently directed trends that are set by such externalities in terms of education as population decline, decrease in consumers capacity to pay, employer dissatisfaction with education quality and weakening of students motivation to continue their education. In this context the basic vector for development consistently concerns structure optimization, unification of educational institutions of different levels, diversification of funding sources and change in higher education management system.
On the basis of a monitoring of educational and working trajectories of graduates of schools and higher education institutions The authors think it expedient for studying problems in adaptation of first-year students to training in higher education institutions to sort out groups of fundamentally different students on the basis of the cluster analysis. With the use of a comprehensive survey of Moscow first-year students seven groups are sorted out, and specific difficulties in learning are analyzed in each case, as well as differences between students from different groups in terms of their certainty when selecting Statistics and Sociology of Education an occupation, when assessing social life in a higher education institution, in terms of peculiarities of their goals in life and education.
For decades, the Soviet school was a way of shaping a new cultural identity rather than an educational tool. The Archi are a small people (about 1,200) who live in one village high in the mountains of Central Daghestan. Until recently, they have retained their cultural and linguistic isolation. Interviews with the Archi recorded during field work in the village, show that the Soviet school, opened in Archib in the early thirties, had been one of the principal channels of influencing the traditional culture. The school had become the.Big Brother.s. zone in Archib, because for a long period, all teachers were from more socially advanced ethnic groups. The attitude of the Archi to their language and identity, the role of women in the society, traditional clothes, and religious life were largely affected by the school. However, being from 30 to 40 years behind the neighboring ethnoses on the way to innovations, the Archi have kept their ethic identity and their language, and now show a rare example of the successful survival of a smaller nation.
The paper presents a theoretical reconstruction of Lev Vygotsky’s project of theory of personality development and highlights Vygotsky’s relevance and heuristic value for the personality psychology of our days, especially positive psychology. The authors focus on several aspects of Vygotsky’s heritage. 1. General concept of personality within a non-classical framework. 2. The idea of self-mastery as the central explanatory concept and its relation to the modern concept of agency. 3. The role of self-reflective awareness in personality development. 4. Personality development pathways in challenging conditions. In Vygotsky’s works personality was implicitly constructed as the most integral higher mental function, while self-mastery or self-regulation was its central feature. Vygotsky’s principle of mediation states that the structure of human activity is mediated by physical or mental tools that break the S—R links and make it possible to master one’s own behavior and mental processes. By utilizing speech as a system of signs that enables the process of mastering the psychosocial reality, self-reflection makes a new basis for more complicated forms of higher mental processes that possesses more degrees of freedom as compared with the lower ones. The law of compensation is discussed in the context of aggravated conditions of personality development, where personality answers on the social boundaries, and thus achieves alternative trajectories of development. The sociocultural paradigm is thus consistent with modern thought of positive and personality psychology.
The article presents theoretical and methodological approaches to using modern media technology in teaching humanities at school. Mediatization of a broad range of cultural practices has altered the mechanisms of cultural memory formation, so school students’ online communication skills should become the foundation of literary education to achieve a balance between tradition and modernization. Transmedia educational strategies proposed in the article allow implementing the principles of humanistic education in teaching humanities subjects. Narration, in its turn — as a method associated with the Russian tradition of teaching literary arts — allows applying the findings of modern semiotic, narratological, and media studies to promote the development of pedagogical practices. In narrative-based learning, the literary text becomes the core of a transmedia project, in which the teacher and students act as directors using various media formats to construct their own narratives on the basis of the writer’s script. Transmedia adaptation of literary classics helps students reconceptualize characters’ ambitions and values, develop creative and critical thinking skills, and get a better understanding of historical and everyday contexts. Cross-platform engagement invokes multiple layers of meaning and artistry, immersing all project participants — students as well as teachers — into a common space of communication, aesthetic experience, and mutual learning, if necessary. Examples illustrating the strategy proposed include educational projects developed with our immediate participation, from our own literature textbook to multimedia projects, in particular the one based on Ivan Goncharov’s Oblomov for the Live Pages project and the one based on Leo Tolstoy’s works as part of the Digital Tolstoy initiative.
Transformations of academic autonomy This is a theoretical sociological survey. The academic autonomy is considered as a metaphor symbolically defining the borders of the university space. The historical survey deals with the transformations of the academic autonomy in the USSR and Russia. Described are current institutional and global threats to the academic autonomy.
School tracking is defined as the placement of students into different school types, hierarchically structured by performance. In the majority of OECD countries, tracking takes place at the age of 15 or 16. In Russia, similarly, students are sorted into “academic” (high school) and “non-academic” (vocational training) tracks after Grade 9, at the age of 15. However, even before that split, Russian children are distributed among schools of differing types (“regular” schools, specialized schools, gymnasiums and lyceums), which some researchers refer to as “pre-tracking” [Kosyakova et al. 2016]. No empirical evidence as to how often students change school prior to formal tracking at age 15 has been available so far. Using the St. Petersburg administrative school database containing information on all school transitions made in the 2014/15 academic year, this article investigates school mobility among first- to eleventh-graders. In particular, it compares the frequency of changing school across different grades as well as the overall incidence of school transitions. Regression models were constructed for academic/non-academic track choice after Grade 9, which link the share of students transitioning to vocational training institutions with school characteristics. In regard of changing school prior to formal tracking, findings reveal rather low school mobility. Indeed, in spite of having vast school change opportunities in a school system of a Russian megalopolis, 65% students attend the same school from Grade 1 through Grade 9, and 85% stick to one school between Grades 5 and 9. This is consistent with Yulia Kosyakova and her co-authors’ inferences on pre-tracking in the Russian secondary school. The implications for building individual educational trajectories and dealing with educational inequality are discussed.
The study is devoted to employment of recent vocational graduates. The proportion of middle-school graduates in vocational enrollment has increased essentially over the past decade, which indicates that the choice of vocational trajectories, on average, is now made at lower age. It was established based on the Monitoring of Education Markets and Organizations that on average 44 percent of students combined work and study in 2010–2015. Vocational students mostly combine and work and study because of financial constraints, their study-work rarely being related to their major. Later on, when making a transition from education to the labor market, vocational graduates have to accept one of the first job offers as they cannot afford a longer job search. The second part of the study draws upon the findings from the 2010–2015 sampling survey of graduate employment administered by the Federal State Statistics Service (Rosstat). It is shown that combining work and study has positive effects on employability of graduates as well as on the size of their starting salaries. In addition, self-funded students and those who combine study with major-related work are more likely to get employed in their field of study after graduation. Education-job mismatch among graduates is found to entail income “penalties”.
We approach higher education as a source of not only private good but also public one. An analysis of oeuvres was aimed at differentiating between formal and substantive meanings of the term “university responsibility”. Substantive meaning of responsibility appeals to criteria beyond knowledge, appreciates the crucial importance of education effects in various aspects of life, and derives from the very fact of interdependence between the university and the society. We believe that importance of university as an institution forming the society may specifically be put into question in Russia, where the high level of education coexists weirdly with the high level of social hardship. An online questionnaire was completed by more than one third of graduates of a Russian confessional (Orthodox) university residing in more than 100 localities of Russia, former Soviet Republics, and other foreign countries. The data on graduates’ shared values and attitudes obtained in the survey was compared to results of national and international surveys on family issues, civic engagement, values, employment, social capital, and consumption practices. Based on this comparison, we suggest that philosophies and attitudes of Orthodox university graduates have many common points that set them aside from the other population of Russia: they are committed to family and civic values, have a strong attitude of service, and participate in social activities to help people in need. Standardized indices of social capital in the sample of Orthodox university graduates are three times higher than those in the national sample of all higher education graduates. We propose to raise a critical discussion of the role of religion in higher education and to dwell specifically on issues of validity of theology as a scientific discipline, effects of bringing religion to high school, and the problem of confessional universities.