The article outlines problems arising in the process of social transformations in social entities and fixed both in general sociological theories and in the sociology of the organization. The problem of compatibility of social organization and social changes is emphasized. The organizational development (OD) as a special type of social change is described in detail. Following aspects are considered: a) differences in views on the sources of social change; b) difficulties associated with understanding the processes of organizational development; c) fundamental differences in the significance and interpretation of these problems in different theoretical models of organizational development.
The given paper aims to present results of the posterior multidimensional approach to social stratification of contemporary Russian society. The proposed model of social structure employs the Weberian concept of life chances which has been operationalised over the map of 24 binary items measuring positive and negative privileges of individuals and their households in four major domains of life: economic stability and security, industrial relations, educational and medical opportunities, and economic consumption. Drawing from the Monitoring data conducted by the Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 2015 and 2019, the study offers a 5-class model. The predictive validity of the final model has been proved by cross-validation procedures which returned 96.2% of correctly predicted posterior probability of class membership for individuals; standard errors for items’ probabilities did not exceed 0.05. The detected five socioeconomic classes seem to be vertically integrated and include non-working population normally excluded from the relation-based approach to class analysis. These are as follows (2015 and 2018): disadvantaged (lower) non-economic class (23 and 22%, correspondingly), unprivileged (lower) property class (19 and 17%), two semi-privileged classes – lower middle class (16 and 14%) and true middle class (29 and 34%) – and advantaged (upper middle) class (13%). The obtained results reassess the popular viewpoint that big classes no longer exist in industrially advanced societies (Grusky & Weeden, 2008) and highlight importance of noneconomic forces for multidimensional stratification of Russian society in the post-transition era.
While many past theoretical discussions on nature of social norms were centered on problem of their precise definition, I propose an analysis of peculiar character of sociological theorizing about norms which is grounded in a wider interdisciplinary context (particularly, in sociologically relevant implications from H.L.A. Hart’s and H. Kelsen’s works on law and norms) and based on systematization of principal norm-related questions which varying types of theories attempt to answer, i.e., nature of norms, social mechanisms of their support and change, analytic and empirically based distinctions between norms and rules and conventions, irreducible complexity of norms, etc.
The importance of studying childhood as a self-sufficient object of social practice is debated in the paper. A review of the formation of this direction in sociology is offered, basic principles are designated. The empirical part of the work is devoted to the study of kindergarten as a special life world for children. Special attention is paid to the description of the data collection method – interview-game, which I consider an adequate method for studying the children opinions. The methodical aspects of the interview-game usage are described. Analysis shows that children turn out to be unique “experts” of the world of childhood who, through a specially constructed conversation, can tell about their activity in the kindergarten and about their ideas for changing educational practices. Children emphasize importance of free playing with peers during the day, the specificity of care practices (eating and sleeping), the interaction tactics between the teacher and children, make their suggestions for creating more comfortable conditions in the kindergarten. Children turn out to be very creative innovators of practices to reconstruct the space of a kindergarten and to change the teacher’s role and rules of communication. Our research shows that the grains of these ideas must be seriously and systematically collected to fully comprehend what the child wants to say. Methodically, the interview of children is one more step in the development of the method as data collection.
The article explores the socio-cultural factors hindering the modernization of two Eastern-Siberian regions: the Krasnoyarsk Territory and the Republic of Khakassia. The analysis is carried out in the context of the dynamics of the Russian and global modernization. The authors rely on the approach developed by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, pointing out two main stages of modernization, primary and secondary. The empirical basis of the article includes national statistics data and the results of surveys conducted in Russia and the regions of the Eastern Siberia in 2010. It is concluded that these regions are at the zenith of the primary modernization and are only approaching the secondary modernization. At the same time, the socio-cultural barriers for modernization in the described regions of the Eastern Siberia are more significant than in Russia as a whole.
Appeal to the leaders and organs of the Bolshevik government, the authors examine how the documents, which focus and connect the structure and components of mentality, social relations and political practice. Analyzing the appeal to authority period 1917-1927, the authors come to the conclusion that the priority concept of the time was "freedom". The article traces the drift of popular sentiment from the desire to overcome the bondage of the old world to the disappointment, the post-revolutionary crisis of psychology in terms of NEP.
The different ways of interconnection of French and Russian sociologies from the time of their beginning, the formation of their common theoretical
Abstract. On November 28–30, 2019 the International Scientific Conference “The Future of Sociological Knowledge and Challenges of Social Transformation (to the 90th Anniversary of V.A. Yadov)” took place, and within the framework of the conference the round table discussion of Community of Professional Sociologists was held, the general content of which we offered to the readers. The main issue of the discussion was the state and role of sociology in Russia and the world. The participants expressed different positions, outlined the main problems of sociological knowledge and profession, diagnosed both crisis phenomena and grounds for development of the modern sociology. Specialists stated that the crisis in the theoretical understanding of society in sociology is reflected to a certain extent in society’s distrust to sociology. Practically each of the participants discussed the public role of sociologist in the modern world, which faces the need to interact with commercial and power organizations. Discussing the fate of sociology in the 21st century, the participants proposed ways out of the crisis – rethinking the subject of sociology, new ways of assembling the palette of modern sociological research, the need to return to the theory of a holistic image of society and construction of ideas about the ways of future development of society.