Based on the materials of nationwide representative studies carried out by Institute of Sociology RAS (including the data from 2014-2015), values and attitudes of Russian middle class representatives in the conditions of economic crisis are analyzed. It is shown that the crisis has not changed the overall heterogeneity of Russian society in terms of values. Middle class continues to be characterized by a more pronounced modernist orientations and attitudes in their daily lives; however, they do not support Western model of development at macro level. Middle class is also characterized by priority of personal interests; in conditions of economic crisis they are theoretically willing to make some sacrifices for the support of the country, however, this attitude does not apply to the measures which could significantly affect the quality of their daily lives. Migration attitudes of the middle class (for those who are considering this possibility at all) are dominated by the orientation on temporary relocation abroad rather than permanent residence; the crisis has only strengthened this trend. In assessing inequalities that exist today in Russian society, middle class expresses the view of the entire population, though they feel less affected by them themselves. At the same time representatives of the middle class support the existence of social inequalities of certain depth, provided the legitimacy of their bases – a condition with which, apparently, situation in contemporary Russian society does not comply.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.
The current study examines the interrelations of values and social capital with attitudes towards innovation. The sample consists of respondents (N = 1238) from four Russian regions – Central, Far Eastern, Volga and North Caucasian federal districts. The participants of the study were asked to fill in a questionnaire, which included the Schwartz value survey SVS-57, a scale measuring attitudes to innovation [Lebedeva, Tatarko, 2009], and a method of assessing social capital [Tatarko, 2011]. The research showed that Conservation values and Self-Transcendence values, which reflect the group’ interests, has a positive connection with social capital indexes. In addition, we found that social capital indexes influence the relation to innovation both strait and with the Openness to change values mediation. A positive correlation between values of Openness to change and a positive attitude towards innovation has been revealed. It was also found that the components of social capital (trust, tolerance, perceived social capital) positively correlated with attitudes towards innovation. The empirical model obtained by means of a structural equation modeling generally confirmed the hypothesis of the study and demonstrated the positive impact of the Openness to change values and social capital on attitudes towards innovation in Russia. The interconnections of the values and social capital with the attitudes towards innovation underline the necessity of considering contextual characteristics while planning and implementing innovations. The current research reinforces the ideas of our antecedents [Amabile, 1990; Rudowicz & Yue,2000] concerning the fact that the deeper understanding of a psychological nature of innovation demands its research in the context of individual and socio-cultural variables interaction.
The article presents the basic results of empirical check of the model of infl uence of valuable heterogeneity of a society on social dynamics. According to the author of the theoretical model (M. Urnov), this infl uence is caused by presence in a society of the groups, being in referential relations, that is relations in which one groups play a role of samples, and others - imitators. Thus the model of an elementary particle of social changes is a certain pair of the social groups connected by the referential relation.
The author shows that demographic transition is an organic part of civilization developments. Such phenomen as death rate and birth rate, changes in character of migration are connected with stages of development of a civilization.
The article shows that the educational level of Russian workers is quite high though the overwhelming majority of them do not have professional education for their job or education in adjacent areas (except for training directly at a workplace). Moreover, they do not seek professional training and do not attempt to receive it in any way. It is shown that all these features have intensified in recent years. The key factors for these negative developments are institutional, primarily - insignificance at the national scale of duration of workers' training or level of professionalism for the level of their wages. Only high education has positive impact on workers' wage rate - it serves for the employer as a marker of their socialization level, because obtained specialty during education does not correspond to a profile of their job for the large majority of them. The fall of the value of professionalism and the de-professionalization not only of workers but also of other Russian employees, which is actively developing now in Russia under the slogans of transition to competency-based approach, leads to the gradual loss of professionalism values in national production culture. However, it would be incorrect to see the situation developing in the ield of the human capital of workers only in black color, since a third of them have the pronounced ability for training and retraining, and under competent public policy this part of workers are capable to act as a cadre reserve for country's technological breakthrough.