Modern world is ageing, and Russia is not an exception. Most governments of the ageing societies aim their social policies at healthy and active ageing of their populations. Many special international documents on these issues were adopted, a number of countries have today separate governmental bodies responsible for policies towards older people. States develop national strategies, support private initiatives and NGO working with elders. In Russia, public policy aimed at active ageing still lacks clear goals and structure. This paper analyses international experience of active ageing policies. Using existing efficiency estimates, we reveal those policy measures that have proved to be most effective and could be applied in our country. In our review we pay special attention at the countries-leaders of the world ratings of older people life quality. During many years those states have been applying different instruments of social policies towards seniors at the country level, as well as at the regional and local levels. They intentionally monitor all the programmes applied and evaluate the mechanisms in use. According to the concept of active ageing suggested by the World Health Organization, we analyse the main components of active ageing such as physical, social and labour activities. The analysis of international practices let us reveal the most efficient instruments of active ageing policy (financial, educational, organizational, informational instruments). In conclusion, we give recommendations for national policy of active ageing to be applied in Russia.
According to the results of epidemiological studies of prevalence of erectile dysfunction in the Russian Federation, the search for the determinants of risk of its development was performed. It was found that the leading risk factors for the development of erectile dysfunction, in descending order of statistical significance, include the amount of accumulation of points according to the IPSS score, arterial hypertension, LIPSS quality of life index, age, diabetes, and overweight and obesity.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation is a method of focal non-invasive brain stimulation, characterized by high spatial and temporal resolution. To date, diagnostic transcranial magnetic stimulation has been used in clinical practice primarily to assess an involvement of the upper motor neurons and to measure the velocity of the neuronal impulse propagation. However, in the last 10 years, a possible range of transcranial magnetic stimulation diagnostic applications has significantly expanded. Many transcranial magnetic stimulation approaches are coming from scientific laboratories to clinical practice due to an increased availability of transcranial magnetic stimulation equipment, in particular, magnetic resonance imaging navigation for transcranial magnetic stimulation and a combination of the transcranial magnetic stimulation with electroencephalography and also due to an increased awareness of the clinicians. The diagnostic potential of transcranial magnetic stimulation in relation to motor recovery after a stroke can be classified into 4 directions:
1) assessment of the vertical tracts integrity (primarily, the cortico-spinal tract); 2) an assessment of the cortical excitation-inhibition balance;
3) probing of the functional and effective connectivity among brain regions (primarily, cortical convexity and cerebellum);
4) motor mapping to evaluate cortical reorganization.
In this article we will present these 4 directions of the transcranial magnetic stimulation application to study motor system pathophysiology and to predict motor outcome in stroke, including both existing and developing approaches.
In modern Russia youth mortality is higher than in European countries, and over the past 50 years this gap has widened. The aim of this article is to trace the dynamic of youth mortality in Russia in 1959-2014, to compare it with European counties and based on the analysis of differences in the causes of death to understand due to what factors the gap has grown over the past 50 years. To achieve this aim the analysis was implemented. As a result, it’s set that the main differences in Russian youth mortality are appeared in the mortality level of the classes “External causes of death” and “Cardiovascular diseases”. Incomplete epidemiological transition and catastrophic increase in mortality from these main causes of death in 90th in Russia widened the gap in mortality level with European countries. Downward trend in youth mortality in Russia on such rubrics in the class “External causes of death” as “Transport accidents” and “Intentional self-harm” began to form from the mid-late 2000s. In turn, in European countries this tendency was observed at the end of XX century. High mortality of young people is defined by both objective factors (quality and availability of medicine) and subjective factors (self-estimated health, care for health, attitude towards medicine, risk-taking behavior, value of their own life and life of others). Subjective factors connect with vital behavior – people actions, aimed at the preservation of physical, corporal and psychological health. Unlike other classes of causes of death, the class “external causes of death” reflects directly the tendency of young people to risky behavior and unfavorable environment conditions. Therefore the difference in mortality level between Russian and European youth is difficult to overcome without any changes in Russian youth vital behavior.
The article discusses the controversial concept of marketing for non-profit organizations. The existing theory of marketing for non-profit organizations developed with borrowing some concepts from the social sciences. From sociology, organizational behavior and anthropology were borrowed the concept of the organization as an open system, motivation, self-interest, bilateral voluntary exchange. Alternative concepts of organization, motivation and relationships with the environment created within the social sciences, allow to formulate an alternative approach to the study of non-profit marketing organizations. Recommendations for future research are offered.
The development of the rational medicine, based on scientific evidence (evidence based medicine, EBM) in the late 21 century lead to the opening of the Pandora box of doubt in the evidence base of medicine. Paradoxically part of the specialists and the public, who are inconvenient with the critical assessment of the evidence, start to criticize the EBM for the corrupted evidence base. In the real world the only way out from the situation with the weak evidence base is the work to support the free access to the research evidence and hard work to improve the quality of evidence
The heatwave of July-August 2010 with an escort of noticeable air pollution (including smoke from peat fires) greatly affected the lives and health of the metropolis' residents. That is easily confirmed by mortality data and information about daily emergency calls. During this period strong peak may be observed both on general graphs and on particular diagnoses graphs depending on time. In addition, the trend of daily calls (as a function of time) changed significantly. The estimates of the change in trend was fairly stable to the noise in the original data. These moments are close in time to the 2010 Moscow heat.
The article presents for the first time an analysis of the continuous statistical data series on deaths from road accidents in Russia since 1956. The total number of deaths for 1956-2012 exceeded 1.4 million. The increase in mortality from traffic accidents started in the 1970s; since the beginning of the 1990s the lag behind most developed countries has been growing. At 2012 mortality levels about 85-95% of Russia’s deaths from road accidents were excessive compared with the number of deaths that would have occurred at age-specific mortality rates from this cause in selected European countries. Both the current characteristics of the general level of motorization and the main indicators of traffic injuries, such as the number of deaths per 100 thousand persons, per 10 thousand vehicles or per number of kilometers traveled, show that in terms of transport development Russia lags 40-50 years behind Western countries. The article also examines the history of the inclusion of mortality from road accidents in the International Classification of Causes of Death (ICD) and the problems of reflecting this mortality in Russian mortality statistics. Gender-specific features and trends in Russian mortality from traffic accidents are analyzed, as well as the differences in mortality for different categories of road users (drivers, passengers and pedestrians) for the maximum possible time period. International comparisons that allow understanding the extent of Russian backwardness and seeing the long-term unsustainable trends in mortality from road accidents are presented. A conclusion is made concerning the need to expand research into the problems of road safety, indispensable for developing effective programs that enhance safety and for catching up with the many countries ahead of Russia
Any road traffic system is very complicated and can be dangerous to health. Elements of this system include motorized transport vehicles, roads, road users as well as physical, social and economic environment. Countries with high automobilization have long ceased to consider traffic accidents as a pure “chance”; furthermore, efforts aimed at preventing and mitigating negative consequences of traffic accidents are thoroughly designed and structured.
In 1972, William Haddon published his study with incorporated approaches that used to be individually applied to trauma epidemiology and transport engineering. Haddon suggested a model to analyze traffic situations that were dangerous to health. Haddon’s approach allowed to achieve a notable progress in understanding factors related to driver’s behavior, vehicle characteristics and road infrastructure conditions affecting emergence of traffic accidents and severity of consequences for participants. Haddon’s approach turned out to be a useful analytical instrument and became widely used in healthcare.
Despite the improvement in the material aspects of life in Russia in 21 century, the access to the health care for poor people, rural inhabitants and some othe vulnerable groups is still limited
The influence of training load on the cardiovascular system of athletes of all ages and the duration of time. When comparing the athletes who train up to two years increased the size of the right ventricular performance, ejection fraction. Also observed lower values in fractional shortening. For the first 4-5 years of performance of the cardiovascular system of athletes of all ages characterize the economisation of the heart. Characteristics of echocardiographic parameters in athletes with little experience of employment indicates the influence of sports on the cardiovascular system. Noted changes can be described to a certain extent not only morphological changes, but also functional. It is established that the character of cardiac remodeling determined by the level of physical and functional training athletes of all ages and fitness facilities, the state of their health, as well as the intensity of training and competitive pressures.