The requirements of the «Journal of Educational studies» to the publications with results of development of any assessment tool are set out. The term «tool» is used here as a superconcept of widespread forms of standardized evaluation procedures, such as a test, questionnaire, scale, methodology, etc.
As massive open online courses (MOOC) invaded the market of education services instantly at the beginning of the 21st century, a new trend emerged in global education. In the era of globalization and digitization, MOOC acts as an efficient tool to promote universities in the international educational arena, popularize national cultures, and raise additional funds. This is why a lot of countries, including Russia, have entered the race of online courses. Despite all the focus on MOOC in global education, the proportion of studies analyzing the MOOC market and the prospects for MOOCs in the Russian context is rather small. This article mainly seeks to describe the MOOC market and behavioral patterns of MOOC providers in the international and national markets of online education, and to classify MOOC players based on open source data collected from online platforms. As a conclusion, platform data analysis findings are used to identify vacant niches in the MOOC market, and possible avenues of Russian providers’ development in the international segment are assessed. Several data sources were used to solve the study objectives: articles, reports, official MOOC-related documents, information from online platform websites, a body of quantitative data collected from two leading online platforms, and a base of quantitative data from the Class Central aggregator, which contains information on MOOCs offered by a few major online platforms.
The article studies the relationship between parental education, educational achievements and trajectories of schoolchildren in the Republic of Tatarstan. The next methods are employed: cross tabulation, correlation, regression and discriminant analysis. The main conclusion points out that parental education presents a statistically significant relationship, but it is weak, in contrast to previous results for Russia. In Tatarstan sex and nationality show more relevant influence, where girls and Tatar speakers obtain better results.
This paper analyzes the possibility of predicting efficiency of learning in a higher education institution based on results of the Unified State Exam (USE). In particular, the authors test the hypothesis that USE results in different subjects are equally efficient predictors of further student performance. Methods of regression analysis have been used to assess how preliminary examinations (both total USE points and points in specific subjects) affect academic performance in higher education. The research involved about 19,000 students enrolled at five Russian higher education institutions between 2009 and 2011. As long as the sample included institutions of different profiles, individual regressions were calculated for each faculty. A meta-analysis of regression coefficients was performed later to bring the data together. Average firstyear grade was used as the key university performance factor. It was found out that USE points were only related to performance in the second and the subsequent years through performance in the first year, i. e. indirectly. The research results allow to conclude that predictive capacity of total USE points is high enough to accept this examination as a valid student selection tool. The explained variation in university performance varies from 15 to 35% in different faculties. Predictive capacity of particular subjects making the USE total points is relatively the same, but USE points in mathematics and Russian are often the best predictors of performance. The paper also analyzes the relation between USE points and another student selection tool — results of academic competitions in specific subjects
This article provides a review of literature on using training simulators in voca-tional education and training and explores the vocational pedagogy approaches to describing training simulators as a tool for vocational skill development. We examine simulators applied in medical, engineering and teacher training education, presenta general taxonomy of practice-oriented training models, andanalyze the role of simulators as specificl earning media. This review can be useful for developing and implementing initiatives within the Human Resources and Education component of the Digital Economy National Program (inparticular, integrating simulators in vocational and higher education).
The use of grades in school education is a worldwide practice, while the traditional system of assessing knowledge is being criticized. Many educational systems around the world offer various alternative assessment systems, from criteria-based assessment to formative assessment. This publication presents a theoretical and empirical analysis of the two most common systems for assessing knowledge and skills in Russian schools - the traditional mark and assessment in the system of developmental education of D. B. Elkonina-V.V. Davydov, suggesting the introduction of a system of criteria for assessing educational achievements of various types, self-assessment procedures, mutual assessment, non-emphasis on the results of assessment and comparisons of children. Two empirical studies were carried out on a sample of primary school students studying in two educational systems - grade and with the abolition of the traditional system of assessing knowledge. With the help of a projective methodology (Wishes for the magician, Questions for the wise man), a comparative study of the degree of concern about the assessments of schoolchildren in grades 3-4 of students in the traditional system of education (TO) and developmental (RO) was carried out. The results of the content analysis of the spontaneous desires of children and their questions to the sage (N (TO) = 327, N (RO) = 153) show that children from TO classes are more concerned about school grades than children from RO classes and only in these (TO ) classes had responses that emphasized formal assessments and achievements to the detriment of meaningful results. The results of the second study (N (TO) = 309, N (RO) = 78) confirm that assessments can have different meanings and take a different place in the structure of internal and external learning motivation and perseverance, having a different motivating function in children learning using different knowledge assessment systems. The results obtained testify in favor of constructing assessment in the logic of the system of developmental education, more differentiated, meaningful and objective, initially carried out together with the child, supporting the values of search, initiative, independent thinking and collective discussions, to a lesser extent accentuating external control and diligence.
In this article we review and discuss different explanations of the university tenure presented in the literature. For our analysis both the probation period and the lifelong employment guarantees are important. We analyze different types of models: for the first type of models the information structure is important, for the second type of models the scarcity of job vacancies explains the tenure phenomena.
We systematize the theoretical approaches towards assessment of school textbooks, analyze the existing practice of textbook evaluation, and justify the need to formalize the assessment criteria in order to improve objectivity. We also suggest a system of diagnosable (measureable) criteria for textbook assessment. The criteria are ranged depending on their functional load. Level-one criteria are used to assess the scientific content of the basic texts (conformance to the educational standard and accuracy of scientific terms). At level two, we assess the extent to which methodology of a specific science affects the content of textbooks. At level three, there is textbook structure: the content of supplementary and explanatory texts, illustrative materials and navigation tools. Level four is where the guidance techniques used in a textbook are assessed. Finally, level five is assessment of relevant didactic and guidance materials. The paper contains advice to enhance the textbook evaluation procedure applied when developing the national list of textbooks recommended by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation. The developed system of criteria may also be used to perform comparative analysis of textbooks on the same subject, where there is choice between textbooks. We use the proposed system to perform comparative analysis and assess the quality of six economics high school textbooks, as well as to develop recommendations for economics and social studies teachers to select textbooks from the national list.
We analyze the Soviet campaign to eradicate illiteracy among adults in the 1920s‑1930s. A comparison of educational and ideological aspects of this campaign demonstrates how closely they were related and how they formed new patterns of cultural behavior. We discuss methodological regulations and decrees of the Soviet government, as well as printed press, study guides, and ABC books. They reveal how entire social strata not only learned to read and to write but also familiarized themselves with (and shaped, to some extent) the new «lingua Sovietica» in the course of the campaign. This new language allowed people to communicate with authorities and to achieve their specific goals through playing with official notions and terms. The soviet approach was specific not just in that education was brought together with solving ideological and upbringing problems but in that it was a totally deliberate and transparent process. Eradication of illiteracy in the Soviet Union was accompanied by radical changes to the way people lived and worked, which resulted in immediate demand for and utilization of the skills they acquired. That was the key to success of the Soviet illiteracy eradication campaign. None of the countries that used the Soviet scheme in their enlightenment projects cold replicate this success, as people were taught literacy with the traditional social relationships being preserved. As a result, knowledge was distributed much slower and population often lost their newly-acquired skills quickly.
Combining work and study by students of Russian higher education institutions is studied from the viewpoint of how university quality and the set of financial, academic, social and demographic factors affect probability of student employment, and what motivates students to enter the labor market. The paper is based on the results of a 2013 survey among graduate students of Russian universities on their educational and career strategies conducted as part of the Monitoring of Education Markets and Organizations project. Data was analyzed using descriptive analysis and regression analysis: influence of factors was assessed through a logistic binary choice model (logit regression). It is shown that the most positive effect on probability of combining work and study is given by such factors as learning in a leading university, studying a Master’s degree, specializing in areas of study connected with foreign languages, mathematics, computer programming, design, architecture, and culturology. Receiving no financial support from family, studying on a state-funded basis, and being male also increase probability of student employment significantly. The research performed has allowed to suggest hypothetically that combining work and study is most often caused by desire to gain work experience, with more talented students working more often, obviously. By doing so, students try to get to look more productive, which may later bring an economic profit to them in the labor market. These hypotheses require further examination.
The article analyses the main trends in the computerization of school education in Latin America, Europe and Asia, which are then compared with the approaches adopted in Russia. An important lesson of othercountries is that technology-oriented computerization strategies do not bring any significant results. Drastically new results can be expected only if the strategy aims at developing the students’ capabilities and countries is that technology-oriented computerization strategies do not bring any significant results. Drastically new results can be expected only if the strategy aims at developing the students’ capabilities and skills (by means of technology). This approach requires a specific realization mechanism, called promotion by the authors. Its characteristic feature is that information technologies are not just offered, but promoted using marketing and constant support mechanisms.
A comparison of education systems in the USA, Western Europe, China, and modern Russia, shows that urgent reform of Russian universities is necessary. Based on the well"known theory of inferior goods, the author concludes that a large segment of Russian higher education either offers services of doubtful quality, or simply sells diplomas not substantiated by any real education. The article considers the consequences of this state of affairs for the job market and the education system itself.
The paper presents results of a large-scale research on the scope of services in extracurricular and extra-school education and on assessment of the potential role of education beyond the classroom and informal education in solving children socialization issues. The research was carried out through questioning students as consumers of education services. A new instrument was developed and tested to allow for a detailed description of various aspects of extracurricular activities and their correlation with studies and social and psychological characteristics of students. An extensive statistic material (over 6,000 questionnaires filled out by students from several regions of Russia) was used to analyze the degree of engagement in out-of-class activities among children of different age; the activities that are more popular for specific age groups; the age range when children are most engaged in such activities; the reasons for non-participation in extracurricular activities; the infrastructure of education beyond the classroom; the relative frequency of structured and non-structured classes; the correlation between out-of-class activities and development of self-esteem, feeling of community, and satisfaction. Age- and gender-related profiles of various classes are described. It appears that structured extracurricular activities, unlike unstructured ones, correlate with higher self-esteem (both overall and academic), stronger sense of belonging, and better satisfaction with school.
It can be inferred from international findings that school socioeconomic composition (SEC) is a major factor of educational inequality in secondary education at the school level. SEC is believed to have a positive relationship with student achievement along with individual student characteristics. However, a review of research methods used in most studies calls the existence of an influence into question.
A study was carried out to evaluate causal relations between school SEC and student achievement. Multilevel regression analysis and propensity score matching (PSM) methods were applied to the panel study Trajectories in Education and Careers data in order to measure the effects of one year of study at schools with low vs. high socioeconomic composition. Correlational and quasi-experimental effect sizes were compared.
Analysis results confirm that school SEC is a key factor of educational inequality in Russian secondary education, the inequality effects of school composition overlapping only partially with those of school location. Within a year of schooling, ninth-graders with similar individual characteristics may lose up to a quarter of standard error in PISA-2012 scores if attending a school with low socioeconomic composition, while attending a high-SEC school would improve their educational outcomes by the end of the ninth grade. Negative effects were observed for two subject areas, which allows suggesting a systematic impact of SEC on student achievement. The final part of the article describes the theoretical and practical significance of the findings and presents the main directions of further research in this field.