"Market as ideal model and economy's form. Towards a new sociology of markets" (by Vadim Radaev) is devoted to theoretical and methodological analysis of market concept in economic sociology. Market as empirical objective is described and its definition is offered. Issue of market is looked at in the perspective of market sociology as a topic of contemporary economic sociology. Historical anthropology, political economy, structural (networks), neo-institutional, and social cultural approaches are applied. Respectively, market is seen as historical form of economy integration; as product of regulation; as networks; as institutions; and as culture. Conclusions related of market characteristics as made. Thus, markets act as social constructs that might be presented as a sum of network links, of institutional limitations and cultural meanings, existence of which allows to refer to markets as total economic objects.
The article presents a comparative analysis of three directions of “Network Аpproach in Sociology” — Social Networks Analysis, Relational Sociology and Actor-Network Theory. Analytical grounds of the analysis are time and context of appearance, main theoretical positions, methodology of empirical research. Аnalysis of differences and similarities between three directions shows the connection between Relational Sociology and ANT, to some extent, and their difference to SNA. Similarities are manifested in the definition of the object of research, the nature of actors they consider (while different roles are assigned to non-human actors), abandoning the initially formed social space, understanding the world as the unfolding relationships produced through translation (or switching), using interpretative methods of analysis. Important differences remain in the interpretation of activity, concept of network and relation to the context. Both SNA and Relational Sociology may be seen as different theoretical approaches, while ANT may be considered as a general sociological theory. Thus, it is not correct to use the concept of “network approach” in the sense of “theoretical approach” or fuse these directions under unifying names "network theory" or "network paradigm". It should be emphasized that this is a collective name for different theoretical approaches using the concept of network in their explanatory models. Eventual attempt to construe an integrative version of these directions should take into account differences in their theoretical basements.
The subject of this article is the unprecedented acceleration of many processes in the present-day world as well as the consequences and problems it provokes. As sociologists, like Z.Bauman, A.Giddens, S.Bertman, U.Beck, J.Urry, T.H.Eriksen and others, emphasized, this acceleration is related to such phenomena as globalization, risk, different mobilities, “nowism”, new nomadism, fragmentation of time and space, etc. The author analyzes the present-day acceleration of life as one of the sources of “presentism”, of domination of the present over past and future and absorption of these latter by it; social amnesia; “delocalization” and “detemporalization” of many events and processes; transformation of time in the incoherent episodes going one after another; “juvenilization” of society, closely connected with infantilism; volume swell of informational rubbish; aggravating problem of the search and selection of necessary information; difficulties of adaptation to the ceaseless acceleration, and so on. All these and other challenges, provoked by the uncontrolled acceleration, were tackled by the “Slow Movement” which became widespread around the world. Author considers some aspects of “Slow Movement” which covers today various areas social life, from food and education to religion, science and art. In the end of article the Russian situation with the problems of time, acceleration and deceleration is analyzed.
Basing on data of the third wave “Generation and Gender survey” (GGS), author analyzes characteristics of single-parent families’ life, structure of single-parent families, their welfare and well-being, possibilities to combine work and family. Most of single-parent families consist of mother and her minor children. Economic activity of lonely mothers is tense, but only one third of lonely mothers has opportunity to combine work and family life. Despite high economic activity, lonely mothers estimate often their well-being and living conditions as bad.