In 2019, the world celebrates the 25th anniversary of the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo. The conference launched a demographic policy shift from state interests to human rights, including the right to reproductive health. The article discusses the current situation in the field of birth control in Russia based on the approach developed by the Cairo Conference. We show that the Russian Federation is no longer a global leader in the number of abortions, and at younger ages, reproductive behavior differs little from other developed countries. The accessibility and expansion of the contraceptive market have played a leading role in reducing the number of induced abortions. Despite the position of some pressure groups and attempts to limit reproductive rights, government abortion policies remain liberal. The observed improvement in reproductive health is not a significant demographic reserve in terms of population growth, but it is of great importance for the quality of life of the population.
The article shows that all types of population’s resources, both traditional economic and incorporated (qualification, social, cultural and power resources) that acquired special significance in the late XX century, are closely linked and are found in a developed form only among a small part of Russians that does not grow in size. It is demonstrated that the latest economic crisis has increased non-market aspects of Russian economy and contributed to the process of income equalization among the working population. It is concluded that crisis affected high-resource, middle-resource and low-resource groups in different ways, and its effect was less painful for middle-resource group. Social capital proved to be most significant in terms of adaptation to the conditions of crisis.
[Reference] 25 Years after the USSR: People, Society, Reforms / Comp. by P. Dutkiewicz, R. Sakwa, V. Kulikov. Moscow: Moscow University Press, 2015. 464 p.
This paper is dedicated to analysis of intergenerational exchanges between relatives. It was found out the main characteristics of frequency of contacts between family members, structure of descending and ascending transfers’ flow. We conducted the comparative theoretical analysis of government and private transfers. It was proved the importance of private intergenerational transfers from the social policy’s point of view.
Social ties seem to play a significant role in the employment practices, including students and graduates, who are most vulnerable categories of employees. This study analyzes significance of informal social ties in the process of job searching for students and graduates. We also investigate the influence of this kind of employment on the objective and subjective criteria of adaptation on the labor market. The study is based on the data of Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE). A statistically significant impact of employment by using friends on the subjective indicators (such as job satisfaction) was found. On the other hand, there are no connections between employment by using friends and objective indicators of adaptation on the labor market.
Is there anything in the professional heritage of Russian sociology, what may be considered a certain “competitive advantage”, important resource for the Russian sociological community in its dialogue with foreign colleagues? Addressing this problem, we elaborate a comprehension of Russian sociology as a continuing and integrative tradition of social thought development, unified by a set of underlying common features: (1) publicism; (2) moral and ethical concern; (3) issue orientation. Contemporary Russian sociologists often tend to see these characteristics as obstacles to integration process in international arenas with their more rigorous methodological standards and more independent academic sphere. However, analysis of sources demonstrates that attempts to make sociology an as “hard” science as possible, become increasingly questionable. The outlined three features are particularly important, in author’s view, for seeing opportunities for Russian scholars to make valuable constructive contribution to global sociology in its response to the issues discussed.
The article addresses to the problem of understanding the nature of the university in the context of choosing the benchmark for its development. The authors try to answer the following questions: Is the university a specific organization and, if so, what are its characteristics? What limitations does the specificity of universities have on the choice of their development guidelines and how to implement their strategies? In what position are the Russian universities and what orientation can their development be linked with? The authors analyze the organizational specifics of a university, and justify its optimal organizational structure. The authors conclude that the guidelines for the development of universities should be determined, first of all, by the specific nature of the activities performed and the tasks the universities face. In the article, two organizational models of the university are described, in terms of its functions, tasks and effectiveness assessing criteria: a university as an institution, and a university as a business organization. Client-orientedness is seen as the main principle when choosing the vector of development of a university as a business organization. However, this orientation does not allow solving the problem of the development of science. In the context of analyzing possible customers for the resulting product of the university’ activity, the authors singled out the State as the only customer for the development of science.
The jobs of professionals in modern Russia are extremely heterogeneous and differentiated not only by industry, but also by opportunities they offer their employees, as well as by requirements for the knowledge, experience and personal characteristics of them. Because of this, not all the jobs of professionals can be described as forming structural prerequisites for the emergence of the Russian middle class — there are no more than two-thirds of them even without accounting for income. The key factor defining access to high-quality jobs with relatively high wages, observance of labor rights, career prospects and professional growth is the human potential of workers (level of education, work experience, personal characteristics etc.). This allows characterize Russian society (in its mass population part) as fundamentally meritocratic. However, the resource of social networks currently has almost the same significance for access to the top quality jobs in Russia demonstrating serious limitations for such a definition even in relation to mass population, as well as demotivation threat for human potential accumulation with a significant part of professionals. The lack of incentives to accumulate knowledge and skills for them is also aggravated by the fact that most of their jobs in Russia currently do not imply updating knowledge, advanced training or use of education or practical experience acquired by employees earlier. In general, although the Russian economy is currently creating incentives to build-up human potential of professionals, these incentives are limited, not always monetized and clearly insufficient to further the use of practices increasing their human potential.