The article considers the logistics chain, consisting of a supplier and customers, as are chosen distributor and a few dealers. The goal is based on probability theory to describe the nature of the effectiveness for introduction of VMI-technology and to analyze the dependence of the efficiency from the structure of the chain.
For mining enterprises, the need for spare parts and consumables used in the repair and operation of equipment depends on a number of factors, and the degree of influence of each of them is not unambiguous and has a more probabilistic (stochastic) nature. Therefore, the recommendations of the equipment manufacturers, which are present in the technical documentation, are more general (universal) in nature. In circumstances where it is not possible to unambiguously determine the actual need for operating resources, mining companies are forced to form additional insurance stocks necessary to ensure an uninterrupted production process and maintain productivity at a given level. To reduce the negative impact of uncertainty of the environment, it is advisable to build relationships with suppliers based on VMI technology. The calculations were made taking into account the total costs associated with the organization of orders and supplies from suppliers and consumers. The proposed solutions were based on using the model of the optimal order size in the supply chain, taking into account losses, both from immobilization of financial resources diverted to inventories, and from downtime of technological equipment. The article proposed a list of items of expenses that should be taken into account when calculating the total costs associated with purchases and stocks of operating resources of mining companies. As a result of calculations in the article, it is shown that with the development of VMI relations between mining companies and their suppliers, it is possible to achieve a mutual cost reduction, while reducing inventory levels, by increasing transparency and certainty when planning the demand.
The major market for crude oil produced in the Caspian region and petroleum products produced at the southern refineries of Russia and CIS countries is the market of the countries of the south of Europe. The transport infrastructure of the countries of the south of Europe for delivery of oil products to consumers is designed for sea supply. In this work, special attention is paid to the condition and development of port terminals and transport systems connecting port tank farms with consumers of oil products. The main capacity of the oil industry in the south of Europe is concentrated in the most developed countries. The method of quantitative analysis is used to study the possibilities of transport infrastructure and the production of petroleum products in the region under study. With the help of this method it is possible to establish the correspondence of the possibilities of the transport infrastructure with the expected and existing freight flows. An analysis of the capabilities of oil refineries that consume crude oil in this region is given. The possibilities of enterprises providing reserve capacities of oil energy resources are considered. Based on the data for the last decade on oil consumption and refining in the countries of the region, the tendencies of development of supply chains for the oil industry in the south of Europe are being investigated. The main regions of crude oil consumption are outlined, the prospects for the development of oil production in the countries of southeast Europe are shown. The presented analysis makes it possible to identify the most significant areas of southern Europe for the implementation of oil supply chains in the region, to build the most efficient cargo flows for shippers.
Authors demonstrate that arising disbalance of supply and demand generates the set of problems for the business organisation, such as high order periods, loss of clients in case of shortage, high total costs, and low efficiency of industrial lines. Eventually, all this factors essentially influence on achievement of company’s strategic goals and undermine corporate market image. Because of developing of integration and cooperation in supply chains, increasing attention in business organisations is given to technology «joint planning of sales and operations/production» (Sales and Operations Planning – S&OP). Article’s purpose is to analyse, how implementing of S&OP technology will affect on solving of mentioned problems (on the example of «Huhtamaki C.I.S.» company). The meaning of planning of sales and operations is made out as a cycle of meetings (stages) repeating in the same sequence every month and subordinating a making decision process.
Changing market conditions led to a significant transformation of the supply chain management system of leading metal companies. The paper contains the results of the study conducted by the author on the systematization and formalization of specialized approaches to managing supply chains of leading metal companies and their relationships, comparing these processes with the standard supply chain management models SCOR + CCOR + DCOR and GSCF. The analysis formalized the main directions of development of the methodology of supply chain planning in terms of adapting to the specific of metals including: the reorganization of relations of existing planning processes in accordance with best practices in the industry planning; consolidation of models CCOR, SCOR and DCOR in a single system of supply chain planning processes; refinement steps of the planning process, and the introduction of additional, if necessary; formalization of methods and planning models; definition of requirements for information technology support. It was noted that the requirements for systematization and development of the planning methodology are defined by the needs of its application to ensure the competitiveness of Russian metal companies in a tough fight in the global market.
Within the framework of the digital economy development in Russia, one of important areas is «digital logistics/ supply chain». In the market of freight and passenger traffic the use of digital technologies gives a competitive advantage, therefore their implementation is becoming inevitable for the entire logistics industry. This article considers trends, advantages, prospects and barriers to the implementation of digital technologies in the Russian Federation; the main types of these technologies and their influence on logistics business processes efficiency. A scheme for digital technologies (Big Data, IoT (Internet of Things), Blockchain, Cloud Services, 3D Printing) using in the supply chain are also presented. This paper provides the analysis of digital technologies use impact and a methodology for assessing the relationship with the components of the model of total logistics costs (TLC) in supply chains. It should be noted that proposed TLC model does not only include logistics operations costs, but also the costs associated with complete customer satisfaction.The use of digital technologies in logistics makes it possible to increase efficiency,precision and speed of logistics operations, however it requires significant financial investments, personnel training, accounting long-term physical movement over long distances, problems of customs clearance and terminal handling of goods.
The article deals with some aspects of systematization and classification of various inventory management models with an account for stock-out. The model with «loss of requisition» most rarely encountered in the theory of inventory management, but indisputably relevant because of its practical value, is discussed. The urgency of the stock-out problem in the modern world economy is accounted for by the information given in the article about the losses caused by the stockout. Applying analytical approach when solving the stock-out problem can serve as a tool that will help solve long-standing problems of stock-out costs reduction. In this paper the calculation examples for key variants of stock-out models are given, and, the model with «lost demand» and its connection with a static problem is of particular interest. Calculation results comparison revealed the fundamental difference in models, which allowed to avoid mixing models that is often encountered in the literature. The result obtained during the research is the expansion of the approach to classification, and consequently, the opportunity to attract additional tools of the stock management theory to solve the stock-out problem, which ultimately aims at optimizing total logistics costs.
The analysis of scientific works devoted to the formation of Key Performance Indicators (KPI) of transport services shows that the long-term path includes the consolidation of a number of basic (key) indicators, the definition of auxiliary indicators, as well as the definition of the company's place among competitors. It is possible to form the appropriate set of models for the calculation of following basic indicators. Productivity (for example, hourly productivity); time parameters (transport time, time for paperwork, time for loading and unloading, etc.); transportation costs (cost of transportation, loading and unloading, storage costs, return flow, etc.); reliability (probability of failure, sustainability of the process and time parameters). We are proposing the original two-level structure of a transport company performance indicators and the model for calculating KPI for assessment of various transport types, that can be used as a basis for development of software contributing to digitalization of transport services.
This article presents an approach on the organization of spare parts inventory management for maintenance support using the Deming-Shuhart - PDCA principle, supplemented with Lean Methodology tools: SMART objectives, continuous improvement, “5 Why?” method, Ishikawa diagram. The approach includes the consistent alignment of the strategic spare parts management goal, coordinated with the overall maintenance strategy, spare parts inventory management system by database creation, spare parts inventory model development, delivery schedule agreement, business processes and KPIs development, plans implementation, results monitoring and follow-up actions adjustment. The information system is a basis for the effective spare parts management operation. Continuous improvement is provided by the possibility of constant movement through the PDCA cycle.
The paper presents the research of features to determine the best solutions for the distribution of the goods in the warehouse network problem on many criteria. The authors have shown that the synthesis of the following methods or approaches can be applied effectively to a network for storage of optimization decisions. 1) Simulation of random orders by Monte Carlo method at a regular interval of supply planning time. 2) Analytical hierarchy process to compare the importance of particular criteria, taking into account the decision maker's preferences. 3) Linear programming in order to minimize transportation and storage costs of the goods (in the format of apriori played out random shop’s orders scenarios to be analyzed in relation to the possible adoption of alternatives, and order execution strategies). The synthesis of these methods makes it possible to formalize a set of alternatives for the organization of deliveries from the central warehouse to the distribution warehouse and shops. The task distribution of the goods in the warehouse network is formalized as the problem of multicriteria selection. It is the implementation of this approach to optimization solutions for the distribution of goods in the warehouse network is presented in this article. As partial criteria are considered: 1) the need to reduce the average daily stock levels, pallets (so the figure would be minimized); 2) the requirement to reduce the average daily cost of storage and cargo handling, USD (thus, the rate and should be minimized); 3) the need to reduce the average daily transport expenses, USD (and this figure will be reduced). Approach to optimize the distribution of goods in the warehouse network, presented in this article has the following characteristics. Along with the procedures of optimization in the article presented a special modification of indicators of partial criteria, which, in contrast to the traditional approaches of the theory of multicriteria optimization, allows more adequately take into account the preferences of the decision maker. This is achieved by the developed synthesis procedures to be taken into account when optimizing the efficient approaches to providing indicators such as in the form of the theory of multicriteria optimization, and in the format of the method of analytic hierarchy. The paper reverals the procedure for determining the best solution on the basis of a) traditional and generalized selection criteria (multiplication, Hurwitz, maximin); b) the method of analytic hierarchy; c) modified selection criteria. The paper also gives recommendations how to adequately take into account the preferences of decision-makers on the importance of particular criteria and also analyzes the impact of changes in their structure on the ranking of alternatives for different selection criteria.
Research of new efficient optimization decisions related to the distribution tasks of goods in the warehouse network is particularly relevant today. The purpose of this article – to help practitioners working in this field in the development of new approaches and methods for finding the best solutions in relation to problems of this type that will use existing hidden reserves of improving the efficiency of such systems. In particular, we will focus on the possibility of taking
into account in the optimization of goods distribution strategies of a number of important factors, such as: 1) the ability to select the period of time for supply planning by orders of stores; 2) the ability to simulate orders from stores with the defined probability distributions for random amounts of such orders; 3) the ability to adapt to the preferences of the selection decision maker; 4) the possibility of reducing transport costs for deliveries, using solutions such as transport problems played out for random order value. The article presents such procedures, which correspond with the task of determining the best solution for the distribution of the goods in the
warehouse network problem on many criteria. These procedures involve the synthesis of these optimization processes during the selected period to plan the supply of solutions. 1) Simulation-playing with random orders to stores this next period at the Monte Carlo method. 2) The use of analytic hierarchy process to compare the importance of particular criteria for decision-makers. 3) Minimization the cost of transportation and storage of goods in the form of a linear programming problem (for simulated random orders in relation to the analyzed alternatives to the possible adoption of the strategy and execution of orders). This article shows that the implementation of a set of procedures mentioned would allow formalizing the task of selecting the solution as the problem of multi-criteria optimization. After that, choose the best solutions can be carried out on the basis of traditional theory, and taking into account the adaptation
of such a choice to the decision maker's preferences. Such selection procedures will be presented in a separate article.
Integrated planning implementation is concerned with some costs, but what about benefits? This article covers the subject of calculation of economic impact of integrated planning. Proposed method suggests to consider interdependence of supply chain KPIs, and start measuring them at the early stages before implementation. This will help to avoid only qualitative estimates, but apply specific quantitative ones as well.
The offered paper continues the research on optimization models of production and finance management in a manufacturing company. Problem setting as well as application of the models with dynamic management of fixed and working capitals are shown on the numerical example of the OAO Rot Front chocolate factory (a publicly held company under the laws of the Russian Federation). The study is limited to the production plan calculation for only one product family (halvah) with quite a short line. The volume of sales of the product group under consideration in units is significant. All necessary inputs are defined with using the information provided by the chocolate factory as well as the data of the open sources on the Internet in case of some information lack. The seasonality in the consumption of the chocolate products is denominated in the scheme of work in the factory. All task calculations are executed via Excel Solution Suite in the Microsoft Office Component Solutions. Except for optimal production programme selection with limited amount of fixed and current capitals, optimal solutions found in dynamic models for OAO Rot Front chocolate factory are evaluated for their stability (robustness) to inflation impact. The change of sale prices for finished goods and purchasing prices for raw materials are taken into account. Moreover, the level of inflation able to cause the reduction of optimal production volume is specified.
Optimization procedures of modern supply chains often require the consideration of a number of special factors that must reflect simulated cash flows so that the solutions found meet academic requirements in inventory management. The article evaluates the profitability of deliveries for the modified EOQ-model, in the format of which it will be possible to envisage the impact of the following factors. 1) The previously agreed possibility of deferring payment for an order. 2) The concept of the time value of money in the analysis of the cash flows of the simulated supply chain. 3) For incoming payments it is necessary to take into account that the proceeds from the sold goods will arrive with a predetermined delay (from the mo-ment of its realization time). 4) The payment of storage costs is realized in the form of leasing the corresponding places in the warehouse, and with a delay for a specified time in relation to the middle of the reordering interval (in contrast to the traditional theory positions in the format of classical EOQ-models of inventory management).
In the case of such models, the existence of an estimate for the cost-effectiveness of the cash flows of the simulated supply chain will make it possible to use the new modified EOQ formulas taking into account the abovementioned factors. This will allow to optimize the reserves taking into account the time value of money in accordance with the requirements of financial analysis and financial mathematics. The research was carried out in relation to important for business situations of efficient supply, when the specified deferrals for payment of an order allow you to pay it out of the pro-ceeds at the reorder intervals. Therefore, in order to simulate such processes, a necessary and sufficient condition has also been established in the paper, that must be imposed on the duration of such a delay in order to ensure the possibility of the specified pay-ment of the order from the proceeds. The modification of such conditions is presented if, during optimization, it is necessary to take into account the need for payments from the revenue for payment of storage costs, as well as the required additional deductions related to maintaining the business processes. The features of supply optimization procedures are illustrated on the basis of numerical simulation results.
Practical aspects of reorganization of management system of a company based on SCOR model is provided in the article. Experience of Russian metallurgical company – pipe producer is used an example. The development program of the company is analyzed. It is highlighted that there is a need for organization of effective management system which is in accordance with contemporary conditions.
The key stages of improvement with description of achieved results are analyzed including: development of strategic card of goals based on balanced scorecards principles; modelling of key business processes and their optimization according to strategic goals including definition of efficiency merits and comparison analysis with world leaders; reforming of organizational structure including personnel trainings, motivation system preparation based on KPIs; information system implementation.
As part of the development of the target process model consolidating business processes necessary to ensure compliance with the basic operations are defined. It is highlighted that each process has a definition based on the elements of the upgraded model of Zachman Enterprise Architecture Building.
It was noted that the introduction at pipe producer modern software modules of planning and scheduling (Advanced Planning and Scheduling - APS) allowed moving to the construction of multi-level supply chain management processes, providing a unique competitive advantage of the company.
In conclusion, there are the results achieved in the whole pipe company, recommendations for the implementation of improvements.