Country-level variables that may significantly influence inflows of migrants in the world are analyzed by means of regression analysis. In particular, we find significant influence of non-economic factors (especially, education) on migration flows. The database in the form of bilateral migration flows for each country was constructed on the basis of the UN data on migration. We find that migration is motivated not only by difficulties in the home country. It is also a mark of a relative personal success.
In 2019, the world celebrates the 25th anniversary of the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo. The conference launched a demographic policy shift from state interests to human rights, including the right to reproductive health. The article discusses the current situation in the field of birth control in Russia based on the approach developed by the Cairo Conference. We show that the Russian Federation is no longer a global leader in the number of abortions, and at younger ages, reproductive behavior differs little from other developed countries. The accessibility and expansion of the contraceptive market have played a leading role in reducing the number of induced abortions. Despite the position of some pressure groups and attempts to limit reproductive rights, government abortion policies remain liberal. The observed improvement in reproductive health is not a significant demographic reserve in terms of population growth, but it is of great importance for the quality of life of the population.
The article shows that all types of population’s resources, both traditional economic and incorporated (qualification, social, cultural and power resources) that acquired special significance in the late XX century, are closely linked and are found in a developed form only among a small part of Russians that does not grow in size. It is demonstrated that the latest economic crisis has increased non-market aspects of Russian economy and contributed to the process of income equalization among the working population. It is concluded that crisis affected high-resource, middle-resource and low-resource groups in different ways, and its effect was less painful for middle-resource group. Social capital proved to be most significant in terms of adaptation to the conditions of crisis.
[Reference] 25 Years after the USSR: People, Society, Reforms / Comp. by P. Dutkiewicz, R. Sakwa, V. Kulikov. Moscow: Moscow University Press, 2015. 464 p.
This paper is dedicated to analysis of intergenerational exchanges between relatives. It was found out the main characteristics of frequency of contacts between family members, structure of descending and ascending transfers’ flow. We conducted the comparative theoretical analysis of government and private transfers. It was proved the importance of private intergenerational transfers from the social policy’s point of view.
Is there anything in the professional heritage of Russian sociology, what may be considered a certain “competitive advantage”, important resource for the Russian sociological community in its dialogue with foreign colleagues? Addressing this problem, we elaborate a comprehension of Russian sociology as a continuing and integrative tradition of social thought development, unified by a set of underlying common features: (1) publicism; (2) moral and ethical concern; (3) issue orientation. Contemporary Russian sociologists often tend to see these characteristics as obstacles to integration process in international arenas with their more rigorous methodological standards and more independent academic sphere. However, analysis of sources demonstrates that attempts to make sociology an as “hard” science as possible, become increasingly questionable. The outlined three features are particularly important, in author’s view, for seeing opportunities for Russian scholars to make valuable constructive contribution to global sociology in its response to the issues discussed.
The article addresses to the problem of understanding the nature of the university in the context of choosing the benchmark for its development. The authors try to answer the following questions: Is the university a specific organization and, if so, what are its characteristics? What limitations does the specificity of universities have on the choice of their development guidelines and how to implement their strategies? In what position are the Russian universities and what orientation can their development be linked with? The authors analyze the organizational specifics of a university, and justify its optimal organizational structure. The authors conclude that the guidelines for the development of universities should be determined, first of all, by the specific nature of the activities performed and the tasks the universities face. In the article, two organizational models of the university are described, in terms of its functions, tasks and effectiveness assessing criteria: a university as an institution, and a university as a business organization. Client-orientedness is seen as the main principle when choosing the vector of development of a university as a business organization. However, this orientation does not allow solving the problem of the development of science. In the context of analyzing possible customers for the resulting product of the university’ activity, the authors singled out the State as the only customer for the development of science.
"Market as ideal model and economy's form. Towards a new sociology of markets" (by Vadim Radaev) is devoted to theoretical and methodological analysis of market concept in economic sociology. Market as empirical objective is described and its definition is offered. Issue of market is looked at in the perspective of market sociology as a topic of contemporary economic sociology. Historical anthropology, political economy, structural (networks), neo-institutional, and social cultural approaches are applied. Respectively, market is seen as historical form of economy integration; as product of regulation; as networks; as institutions; and as culture. Conclusions related of market characteristics as made. Thus, markets act as social constructs that might be presented as a sum of network links, of institutional limitations and cultural meanings, existence of which allows to refer to markets as total economic objects.