The paper deals with the problem of unification of legal regulations applied to meetings of members of noncorporate and corporate bodies. Applying the methods of economic analysis of law, the author, firstly, examines the nature of corporate and non-corporate bodies and comes to a conclusion that their structures are significantly different. Secondly, taking the obtained results into consideration and using the formal logical method, the author studies the possibility of constructing an uncontradictory system of legal regulation of noncorporate bodies and corporate bodies. In conclusion the author states that the unification taken in law does not cover all the peculiarities of legal regulation objects, and it is contradictory. The term “civil-law community” should be used only in relation to non-corporate bodies.
Several sessions at the St. Petersburg International Legal Forum — 2015 are devoted to the reform of the Russian Civil Code since it is exactly 2015 that may become a starting point for a new stage in development of the civil law in Russia. This year the majority of amendments, developed by leading Russian civil lawyers with the assistance of business community and supposed to suit the advanced civil turnover, are coming into effect. Still, the question whether they will be applicable in practical terms remains unanswered. Author shows concern for this and identifies prerequisites necessary for its resolution.
The present article is, according to the author’s intention, a continuation of the research in this direction and is presented as a regular publication from a series of works devoted to various areas of regulation of the status and activities of judges in the context of ensuring their independence.
The significance of the principle of independence of the judiciary while exercising its main function - justice - for a state that has declared itself legal and democratic, striving to truly respect the rights and freedoms of citizens, is difficult to overestimate. Its presence and reasonable implementation contributes to objective and impartial justice, which, generally, is proclaimed as the main goal of each new reform of the judicial system. However, the changes of the last years, introduced into the judicial system, were mostly aimed at strengthening institutional independence, leaving unattended the individual independence - the judicial one. Experience has shown, that they are closely interrelated with each other and are not separately achievable.
Therefore, there comes a special meaning of the other stage of formation of the judiciary, which is the main one, namely, the process of empowering as a judge those candidates who meet the established requirements. This procedure has a multi-level structure, consisting of both a number of formally fixed verification measures and filters, as well as restrictions that are not directly provided by law, but are actively applied in practice.
The investigation identifies problems of organizational character related to the order of formation of bodies of the judicial community and of functional character, revealing the ambiguous nature of the procedure for vesting judicial powers, and this research also formulates proposals for overcoming current problems in order to strengthen the guarantees of judicial independence.
 First work from a series if works: Mikhaylov V.K. Some requirements for candidates for the post of a judge as a threat to the independence of the judiciary // Court Administrator. 2019. № 1. P. 3 - 7.
This article is dedicated to analysis of preconditions for development and worldwide use of Creative Commons (CC) license system. CC licensing system is based on legal formula of author’s right protection called «some rights reserved», which is deferent to standard legal formula of copyright as known as «all rights reserved». We provide the description of CC licenses’ terms, their purposes and the legal classification of licenses. We describe the status of adaptation of CC licenses to the legislation of different countries. It is noted that among domestic lawyers is an ongoing debate on correlation of CC licenses rules to the Civil Code of Russian Federation. It is shown that recent supplementation of Russian Civil Code by the novel institute called «open license» in the Article 1286.1 is nothing other than an attempt to receipt all the CC license system in the form of one generalized rule of law. We have emphasized the positive impact of the novel rule on the character of Russian intellectual property rights legislation. We have fulfilled a detailed analysis of low efficiency of the open license instrument in its present form for practical use at present and underline the lack of the situation’s improvement prospects in future. The author proposes to implement the CC licensing system to the national legislation on intellectual property rights in full fledge form without exception by the direct reference to official text of CC licenses in Russian language.
The present paper tries to confirm or refute the hypothesis about Russian commercial procedure as a type of professional legal process. An interim conclusion is made that the position according to which a professional judicial process is a process oriented to professional participants is conservative. Instead of this position, the author puts forward and substantiates the thesis that the main feature of a professional judicial process is effective procedural cooperation between the court and the persons participating in the case. At the same time, the analysis of commercial courts practice conducted in the article leads to the conclusion that the court and the parties have a rather formal cooperation, which is extremely difficult to recognize as effective. This circumstance indicates that it is premature to consider the Russian arbitration process as a professional judicial process. According to the results of the study, it was concluded that in order to give the commercial procedure a professional character, it is necessary not only a fundamental change in the approaches of judicial practice, but also a fundamental change in the general psychology of the cooperation between the court and the parties.
The paper provides a comparative overview and a concept analysis of relevant legislative proposals to increase the num- ber of succession planning tools available in Russia by in- stituting inheritance agreements, joint wills, and private foundations. Some alternative approaches to making use of these tools in original jurisdictions are then described. It also discusses the need for a new balance of interests between the surviving spouse and the heirs, and suggests further im- provements to succession law.
The article discusses the calculating losses’ elements in the criminal code, their development and significance today. These elements are widespread practice in defining economic crimes. There are some general problems with defining their substance and methodic of their calculation. Basically, they use as a tool for creating aggravating circumstances with regard to economic crimes, so they are designed as a workable mechanism of inflicting the punishment. However, the empirical data shows that there are either disbalance in penalization (that is number of convicted for crime with aggravating element of such type is more than number of convicted for a “simple” crime) or disbalance in application of punishment. Using as an example a fraud in especially gross size, it may be shown that there is not any clear impact of size of stolen property on applied punishment. The historical research shows that in Empire’s era calculating losses’ elements were not widespread in the criminal code. In Soviet time, such elements were used more and more. Up to the late 1980s, some of such elements were approximately defined in case law; however, the most part of these elements were not clearly defined either in case law or in scholar publications. To improve the effectiveness of calculating losses’ elements, the author proposes some steps de lege ferenda. The main step would be calculating losses with regard to economic status of the victim that is using diminishing of company’s actives in percentage as a threshold. The second step would be limiting use of calculating losses’ elements in criminal legislation.
Judicial expenses became subject to the Plenary Resolution of the Supreme Court for the first time. The author attempts to find in the explanations of the Supreme Court any leading idea or general principle which would allow to cover all proposed explanations. The interpretations put by the Supreme Court are analysed in the context of various theories defining the nature of court costs: the procedural theory, the theory of damages, and the theory of the actual procedural behavior.