The article reconstructs the historical development of a research method known as Social Network Analysis (SNA). The heuristic capability of the method on the basis of intellectual history is analyzed as well.
The author displays that due to symbolic thinking people can act at the same time bothe as subjects and objects of social life. The article proves that the analysis of the language of politics, the competence of politics, and political information are considered by the academic community as independent modes of political reality. However, the political actors speak, think and know in political context simultaneously. Therefore, the conceptual focus of the research isn’t on the political ontology, epistemology and semantics as such but on the relationships in the political community. It is shown that the symbolic space of politics emerges as a spontaneous nonconventional social interaction creating a stable (and already conventional) model of relations, which isn’t fi xed in the framework of the positivist approach. The author argues that the understanding of language as a social symbolization goes beyond the perception of political character as a “world view” or “mirror of reality.” The process of political symbolization is a collective interaction of meanings not just reproducing the existing meanings but generating new ones as well. This gives the political symbolization a universal communicative function.
In this article, we analyze how students studying at Moscow universities perceive historical events of 1917, 1937, 1991, and 1993. We look at two groups of students: those who have taken the standardized test (the Unified State Exam) in history, and those who have not. The study shows that neither of the two groups has a firm grasp or understanding of 20th century history, as they can usually only say a few words about the events. The more recent the event, the lower the students' knowledge of the event. The authors conclude that history lessons in schools should be restructured and redistributed, and that memory politics should be transformed with attention to new channels of communication that are popular among young people today.
The article deals with the new Russia's crises and their impact on the regions social development including labor markets, household incomes, consumption and regions budget expenditures. The focus is on the new crisis regional differentiation and implication for different territories, big cities and towns as well as rural settlements and population.