This article addresses traditional for social thought question of “structure/agency” relations in the context of current problems of socio-economic development at the global and national levels. The focus is more on general social theory. The key thesis of the present paper is that, in the context of negative trends in socio-economic dynamics and significant increase in the pace of social and technological change, the phenomenon of “de-structuration” takes place implying that in various domains of social life (economic, political, cultural e.a.) structures are more and more subject to change thus opening opportunities for “transformative agency” and creating new institutions that may potentially contribute to positive change in socioeconomic development. However, authors suggest that dominating approach in sociological research is insufficient to address these issues. It is demonstrated that human capital theory and, in particular, the T. Schultz’s idea about the “entrepreneurial element” of human capital, may be useful for theoretical elaborations and practical solutions responsive to challenges in socioeconomic development. Rich heritage of the Russian sociological tradition may help renovate theoretical and methodological toolbox of sociology.
The paper discusses stress factors coming from the work content and labor conditions among Russian and French software developers. Empirical analysis used in our research is based on the case study in two IT companies, in Russia and France. The results indicate that the main factors leading to stress are work overload, uncertainty about the future and career, lack of the feedback and limitations for creativity. Together, these factors form a common «professional risk zone». However, their character and the degree of impact on workers do differ between two companies. In particular, Russian programmers adapt better to stressors due to perceiving negative work conditions as close to normal for an extended period of time. As result, the time when the stress moves into its detrimental stage and starts affecting the performance remains stays unnoticed for both, management and worker.
The article is devoted to the professional career in the field of science and technology in terms of changes in its models and influence of factors of social context. This article reviews the ideas and principles of sustainable development, oriented to long-term and humanistic goals, in conjunction with interdisciplinary approaches to the study of careers. It is shown that measurement of career associated with the understanding of coherence and duration in time of the relation (character continuity) of these periods, depending on the external environment, attainability as a possibility of assessing success and development of professional status. Conclusions in the article relate to methodological approaches to the infrastructure of a professional career at various levels, taking into account the capabilities and limitations and factors influencing the formation of ideas about the stages of a scientific career, the indicators of success, efficiency and achievements. A favourable social context becomes the basic condition for long-term and consistent career as a way of accumulation of knowledge, expertise, resources, social ties and status positions.
This article analyzes the professional culture of the Russian technical specialists - engineers, programmers, and so on. The article is based on data from a series of semi-formalized interviews with Russian technical experts. The theoretical frame of this study includes articles by Soviet and Russian sociologists, in which researchers studied the identity of Soviet scientific and technical intelligentsia. Another important source is a publication of G. Kunda, P. Meiksins on engineering culture and professionalization of engineers. A separate topic of the article is the definition of a professional culture that includes values, norms of behavior, Slang, common social practices and professional ethics. The Professional culture of Russian technical experts contains a number of elements. First, rationality and system thinking is the result of technical education. Secondly, masculinity is part of the professional culture of the technicians. Thirdly, the technicians are working hard and well. Fourth, the creative involvement is important for technicians in their work. Also, the organizational context affects the culture of professional technicians.
This article about theoreticac perspectives professional ethics.
The study uses the framework of professional well-being of teachers to study the peculiarities of their professional position in Russian schools. The information base of the study is the data of the Monitoring of Education Markets and Organizations for the 2015-2016 academic year. The teacher's questionnaire includes a separate questionnaire on the professional well-being of teachers. The methodology of EFA and CFA of the questionnaire structure is used in the work. Based on the answers of teachers, there are five groups of teachers with different professional positions. The analysis of the groups shows that deformation of a professional position correlates with: the social context in which the school works, the characteristics of the territory, the work with disadvantaged children, high workload not related to teaching, and low involvement in making decisions about school life. At the same time, the following factors do not show a significant connection: the salary, the length of service or the age of the teacher. In addition, the results of psychometric analysis of teacher well-being questionnaire in the framework of the Classical Test Theory are indicated in the work in order to use it as an independent tool in further research.
 Monitoring of Education Markets and Organizations. URL: Memo.hse.ru/en/
The article is devoted to the conceptualization of the idea of professional or occupational risk in the context of risk sociology. Assuming there is opposing epistemological positions for studying risk in sociology, the author identifies two approaches to the conceptualization of occupational risk: realistic and constructivist. In the first case, professional risk is interpreted as the likelihood of a real threat and possible damage to employees due to the impact on them of harmful production factors of different genesis. In the second case, professional risk is understood as possible decisions (actions) of an actor that are caused, on the one hand, by the framework of the profession’s «life world» (knowledge, skills, experience, norms). On the other hand the actor’s views on the possible costs/benefits are shaped in the course of professional activities. Author demonstrates the research perspectives and limitations of each of these approaches by referring to several examples from empirical sociological research.
Psychosemantic approach is most in demand when it comes to research collective representations, allowing to identify the underlying attitudes and stereotypes that are poorly reflected upon, or hidden because of social undesirability, and therefore difficult to diagnose. Country’s image perception is just such an example. The article deals with a number of images of countries which are well known among student audience in South Korea. Psychosemantic author's technique "The image of a country" was used to obtain empirical data. 107 subjects (females and males) took part in the survey. The study included the analysis and interpretation of primary answers on items of the questionnaire, confirmation of universal categories of countries images perception, determination of average scores for all countries from the questionnaire for all categories, reconstruction of integral rating of the positive attitudes toward the counties.
For data analysis methods of multivariate statistics were used (principal component analysis and discriminant analysis).