In the paper main trends in contemporary theory of entrepreneurship, a multidisciplinary field of research rapidly developing in last 20-25 years in the West, are shown. It contains a short overview of first results achieved in this field by Russian scientists in the 1990-2000, with a special focus on sociologically driven papers. Reasons of a gap between Russian researchers and the international state of the theory as well as possible steps to improve the situations are formulated. Most actual subjects for home country researchers are characterized.
The article discusses the processes of precarization, developing rapidly in Russian society, have affected by now a significant portion of the country's population. It is also noted that the formation of precariat raises the question of a possible change in the very grounds (criteria) for distinguishing classes in Russian society, and the nature of employment and degree of social security. A scheme of a possible 5-class structure of Russian society using an approach is offered.
Article is devoted to studying of the precariat and precarization in the Russian society. The theoretical scheme of identification of the precariat in social structure is developed. The evaluation of number of the precariat and its comparison with other social groups of the Russian society is given on empirical data during 1994-2013.
This article addresses traditional for social thought question of “structure/agency” relations in the context of current problems of socio-economic development at the global and national levels. The focus is more on general social theory. The key thesis of the present paper is that, in the context of negative trends in socio-economic dynamics and significant increase in the pace of social and technological change, the phenomenon of “de-structuration” takes place implying that in various domains of social life (economic, political, cultural e.a.) structures are more and more subject to change thus opening opportunities for “transformative agency” and creating new institutions that may potentially contribute to positive change in socioeconomic development. However, authors suggest that dominating approach in sociological research is insufficient to address these issues. It is demonstrated that human capital theory and, in particular, the T. Schultz’s idea about the “entrepreneurial element” of human capital, may be useful for theoretical elaborations and practical solutions responsive to challenges in socioeconomic development. Rich heritage of the Russian sociological tradition may help renovate theoretical and methodological toolbox of sociology.
The paper discusses stress factors coming from the work content and labor conditions among Russian and French software developers. Empirical analysis used in our research is based on the case study in two IT companies, in Russia and France. The results indicate that the main factors leading to stress are work overload, uncertainty about the future and career, lack of the feedback and limitations for creativity. Together, these factors form a common «professional risk zone». However, their character and the degree of impact on workers do differ between two companies. In particular, Russian programmers adapt better to stressors due to perceiving negative work conditions as close to normal for an extended period of time. As result, the time when the stress moves into its detrimental stage and starts affecting the performance remains stays unnoticed for both, management and worker.