The article shows none-phenomenological quality of G. van der Leeuw’s Religionsphänomenologie and doubts thus of the quality of phenomenology in religious studies. His phenomenology is showed to be realized only as general understanding of humanities to stress the well-known cognitive ways (valuable neutrality, selection of facts, verification and hermeneutical circle) not only for knowledge but for faith, using pseudo-phenomenological knowledge as disguise. Thus Leeuw’s conception from the cognitive point of view is uncertain, it hesitates from science to theology.
Unlike Western philosophy, the philosophical tradition of China and the whole Eastern Asia is founded on the premise of organic unity of spirit and nature and
the corresponding aspects of human experience. This article explores the condi- tions and nature of such unity, often named the body knowledge. The author
claims that the metaphysics of the body knowledge is based on the concept of self-concealment or self-abandonment which amount to the eternal “return
to the origin” while its epistemology equates consciousness to the universal cor- respondence and above all the presence of spirit in the immanence of life.
Its main and totally practical value is the capacity to anticipate the course of events and support the “unfolding” of things, let everything be. It affirms
that things are to the extent they are not and the spirit coincides with pure ma- teriality in the living immanence. This made the body knowledge the basis of
politics and strategical thinking in the Far Eastern civilization. The body
knowledge is of particular importance in the contemporary informational civili- zation which gives priority to the pragmatics of communication over objective
truths and the free actualizations of synergy over formal collectivism. Above all, it helps to restore the existential meaning of learning.
In article the project of "synthesis philosophy" offered by M.N. Epstein is considered. The purpose of the project is in giving philosophies an innova- tive impulse, to save it from tautological infertility, to give it the status of the active participant informative (first of all research) processes. For this purpose it is necessary to redirect the main methodological installation of philosophy – "from the analysis to synthesis". It is not only about "analyti- cal philosophy", but about all range of the philosophical directions. The method of "synthesis" allows a set of interpretations: from synthesis of con- cepts before the synthesis of philosophical and scientific concepts taking place in a cross-disciplinary research of difficult, multiple-factor processes. In most cases the methodology of synthesis appears as transition, usual for science, from initial abstractions to concrete explanations which receives the generalized description and conceptualization. The problem consists in that how far there can be such generalization. The forecast about approach of such stage in development of philosophy when she acts as the supplier of alternative ontologies for various scientific pictures of the world, can be un- derstood as the romantic dream bringing in the academic discussions about the place of philosophy in culture live feeling and sympathy.
The author examines the delicate relationship between such phenomena as philosophy and popular culture. After formulating three attitudes of philosophers working with popular culture (left-critical, right-critical and left-objectivistic), the author proposes the term «crossroad» to show at what point of evolution of philosophy of culture and social theory during the XXth century converged popular culture and philosophy. This «crossroad» turned out to be post-modernism in such representation in which the American Marxist philosopher Fredric Jame-son began to talk about. Postmodernism before Jameson was understood as a trend in art, and only Jameson came up with the idea to extend it to the entire culture that dissolved in during the 1970s in the economy. It was Jameson who first stated the thesis that nowadays high and popular culture represent a single space. Briefly describing Jameson's approach, the author shows what this synthesis of postmodern philosophy and popular culture has led to. Recog-nizing popular culture as legitimate, and its then state as «postmodern», social philosophers began to develop the idea of expansion of culture into the social sphere, however, not in everything agreeing with Jameson. The author emphasizes the idea that the beginning of the XXI century was marked by a surge of philosophical interest in popular culture.
The article is concerned with the study of the philosophy of technology of Hans Freyer (1887-1969), who was the fi rst representative of the academic sociology in Germany. His program developed in the essay Towards a philosophy of technology (1929) is discussed as the reactionary modernist response to the cultural criticism of the German Lebensphilosophie (L. Klages, G. Simmel, M. Scheler). From the positions of the sociology of culture and political sociology it aims to integrate the modern technology into the organic life of a modern nation. After the World War II H. Freyer has shifted his heroic-realistic position on technics developing the criticism of industrial society and technocratic modernity which has formed the philosophical discussion on technology in 1950s-70s and infl uenced the Ideologiekritik of the later Frankfurt school. H. Freyer's philosophy of technology is examined in the broader politico-ideological context of the conservative revolution.
The following paper examines the characteristic features and problems of the Russian translations of Hannah Arendt’s works and studies on her philosophy, evaluating the actuality and the future perspectives of the reception of her ideas in Russia. For a long time, Arendt’s name was little known to most Russian readers: first editions of her major works were published in the middle of the 1990s. As of now, most of Arendt’s major works have been translated, although the quality of Russian editions is lacking because of several objective and subjective factors. The situation with the reception of Arendt’s ideas is not less complicated: because of the mostly fragmentary character of Russian Arendt studies and the lack of fundamental publications, her name is still associated with many stereotypes. Although some of Arendt’s concepts are slowly turning obsolete due to methodological reasons, Arendt studies in Russia have good perspectives in the field of political and social philosophy, philosophical anthropology and philosophy of emotion.
The article is devoted to the analysis of N.V. Gogol’s novel “Viy” as a representation of his philosophical concepts of evil, human nature and society. We analyze its main character, the only philosopher in Gogol’s works. Thomas Brutus finds himself on the intersection of real world and fantastic reality, which makes him horrified. But we can describe this situation in terms of political philosophy, like Hannah Arendt’s concept of totalitarian society. It is not the reality of horror that deprives Thomas Brutus of the speaking ability and breaks his connection with the rest of society. Instead the society itself chooses not to confront obvious evil but to exclude the hero from its own ranks and to ignore his attempts to tell what is happening.
On March the 19th 2019 a round table “Franz Brentano: The critic of Immanuel Kant’s philosophy”, dedicated to the publication of book Franz Brentano. “On the future of philosophy: Selected works” (Moscow: Akademicheskij proekt, 2018) was held at the Institute of Philosophy of the RAS. The round table was hosted by the journal “Voprosy filosofii”, Department of Contemporary Western Philosophy at the Institute of Philosophy of the RAS and Center for Phenomenological Philosophy of the Faculty of Philosophy of the RSUH. The discussion was attended by phenomenologists, historians of philosophy, epistemologists. Their focus was on the following topics: the historical-philosophical concept of F. Brentano and his evaluation of I. Kant’s doctrine as the reference point of the phase extreme decline in philosophy; the problem of criticizing influential concepts; skepticism and science philosophy; judgment or belief: the problem of synthetic a priori judgments; difference between analytical and synthetic; space, time, categories as themes of critical analysis; ethics: the categorical imperative as psychological fiction. The most controversial topics were the philosophical-methodological problems of the unity of social-humanitarian and natural-science knowledge.
The paper deals with the polemics of Vasily Rozanov and Nikolay Berdyaev on the metaphysical relation between Christ and the World. The polemics took place in the meetings of Religious-philosophical society in Saint Petersburg. The author inserts this polemics in the context of current debates on the role of metaphysics in post-secular discussions on religion. Rozanov’s reasoning and Berdyaev’s answer are considered not to be an example of ‘exotic’ Russian religious philosophy based on literature and devoid of strict argumentation but rather reflections with certain metaphysical argumentative strategies. The author reconstructs the viewpoints of the philosophers. Rozanov’s report is grounded on the opposition of Christ and the World. Rozanov discovers the contrast between love to Christ and love to the World by demonstrating incompatibility of the Christianity and secular pleasures. Although Rozanov uses stylistic and psychological techniques, he presents his point as the metaphysical one. Therefore, the answer Berdyaev works out is based on metaphysical question. What is the world? Is the world only the actual being, or it is an axiological category? The author examines this argument as the refutation of Rozanov’s point, because the values of the world and Christ cannot be opposed if the category of the world does not content an axiological dimension. In conclusion, the author claims that the main trouble of the polemics is the difference in Rozanov’s and Berdyaev’s interpretation of metaphysics. That is why it is significant to answer what is metaphysics for current debates on religion.