The paper analyses the demand planning process from supply chain management perspective. The place of the analyzed process in SCOR and GSCF models is investigated. Main steps of the process are clarified: analysis and preparation of historical data; statistical forecasting; manual expert correction of the forecast; forecast verification and confirmation; quality monitoring of forecast and process. Approaches to process data organization are investigated; terminology in this area is presented. The key forecasting methods are analyzed including: qualitative/subjective, cause and effect, time series. Key forecasting models for demand planning in supply chains are systemized. The importance of the quality monitoring of forecasts is highlighted. Main methods of determination of exceptional situations are presented. Key requirements for informational systems of demand planning are formalized. Overview of popular software tools for demand planning is presented.
A scope of a new order fulfilment planning methodology is provided including order promising, material allocation, production planning and scheduling. An experience of successful implementation of the planning methodology at American special steel maker is provided.
A problem of the designing of rational distribution network for a retail industry is observed in the article. The principle of rationality of a distribution network is described as a connection between a distribution network design and goals / requirements of a corporate strategy with a breakdown by different formats, sales regions and product categories. Authors proposed five-step approach for the designing of a rational distribution network, including a classification of a retail company, identification of corporate strategy’ requirements for a distribution network, a linkage of these requirements with strategic goals in logistics for separate elements and objects in a distribution network, mathematical formalization of the joint objective function and the system of restrictions for the network modeling and optimization.
Inventory reduction has become one of the main activities undertaken by most companies both in Russia and in the world. Companies strive to be efficient, especially in the present situation of economic recession. However, it is often the case that management does not fully understand what lies behind the dry figures of financial reports. Inventory is necessary for any company, it helps the company to function properly and meet the customers’ demand on time. Therefore, thorough planning is crucial before any project on inventory reduction comes into effect. The first step for this project should be understanding the inventory structure. Without such understanding the company runs the risk of out of stock situation which results in profit lost and customers dissatisfied.
There is a lot of information in both electronic and printed resources about how one can stratify one’s inventory, basing on the goods’ position in the production process, or the purpose the inventory serves, or some other criteria. We will look at the example of a global FMCG company, which divides its inventory into several categories basing on the category’s purpose or root-cause of existence (transit, block, quarantine, prebuild, safety, cycle, overstock, residual).
The company’s example shows how inventory can be successfully managed, taking into consideration each category’s specifics and addressing them by various means capable of influencing exactly this type of inventory, thus reducing stock on hand while not endangering service level.
Author describes the method of stock replenishment spare parts by automotive dealers based on queuning theory. It is presented, that increase in costs from stock deficit of spare parts and decrease in storage costs lead to greater effective stock value to be stored on dealers’ warehouse. Limits in the model are Poisson type of requestes flows and stock replenishment of spare parts by automotive dealers.
Automotive industry is one of the global industries that suffered the most from the 2008 crisis. The industry has a very complex value chain. Its after-crisis recovery is accompanied by transformation of relations between supply chain members and leads to changes in competitive positions of participating countries and regions. Research into specifics of value chain development in automotive industry before and after financial crisis 2008 can help to identify ways that may support the recovery of the industry from other global crises, incl. COVID-19. The research is aimed at spotting the changes in global value chains of the leading automobile exporters appeared as a result of the 2008 financial crisis. The article analyses the general specifics of value chain formation and functioning in global automotive industry. Based on value added statistical database, TiVA 2018, we explore the dynamics and regional structure of exports in value added terms for leading automobile exporting countries (Germany, USA, Japan, South Korea, China). We investigate and explain the changes in the structure of foreign value added for leading automobile exporters, as well as calculate the intensity of target countries’ integration in value chains before and after crisis. As the primary result of our study we conclude that despite the regional character of global automobile production and consumption, regionalization of the industry after crisis has not deepened. The global automotive industry experiences a bigger role of Asian countries as consumers of final products and automobile exporters. In some countries the share of domestic region in exports and as source of foreign value added is decreasing. The intensity of countries’ value chain integration varies, nevertheless all target countries increase involvement in forward linkages. Developed countries are more active in exports of intermediate products. Developing countries are focused primarily on final stages of production process and final products assembly.
In the article, in order to optimize logistics activities, is developed the architectural approach to the design of the operating model of the business system in the context of its main stages – the identification of strategic requirements, the construction of a system of top-level processes (value chains) and models of functional systems. The model is based on a conceptual map of logistics activities. A review of the materials on the state of the organization of logistics activities in Russia is carried out, showing that at most enterprises the logistics service is not endowed with integrating functions of flow management. A universal normative template for building activity systems is proposed, on the basis of which (on the example of a particular enterprise) the procedure of architectural modeling of the logistics system is given. Functional logistics systems are considered as a complex of competence Centers, which allows us to further consider the owner of the functional system of "logistics management", while giving him the appropriate authority as a Manager, ensuring the integrative nature of all components of the logistics system of the enterprise. Thus, the architectural model creates a platform for the integration of logistics activities of the organization, which leads to a systemic effect (due to the growth of coherence of all elements). This, in turn, gives a sharp increase in business efficiency, and also serves as the basis for designing the optimal organizational structure and digital transformation of this area of activity.