This article reviews approaches to optimize the subject area of regulatory impact assessment in Russia, selected OECD countries, the Eurasian Economic Commission and the European Commission. The authors set the task to systematize the approaches applied at various levels of regulation, identify best practices and provide recommendations to optimize the model of regulatory impact assessment in Russia.
The authors identified three types of "filters" that set the criteria for the selection of draft acts subject to assessment: (a) the "primary" filter that determines the scope of RIA, including types of regulations, and sometimes – certain policy areas subject to RIA, (b) the "secondary" filter aimed at the selection of acts according to their significance, and (c) exclusions from the RIA subject area. The selection of the optimal combination of criteria, providing the selection of acts, in regards to which it is possible and expedient to carry out RIA, largely determines the effectiveness of RIA institute.
Studying experience of the countries, leading in the field of RIA, allowed noting that despite differences in approaches, there is a number of common trends. Specifically, draft regulations should be the subject to assessment, first of all, if they have a significant impact on the stakeholders of regulation (excluding draft regulations aimed at the elimination of technical mistakes in the regulations, the adoption of organizational decisions by the authorities, informational documents, etc.), and, secondly, if the regulatory body is authorized to elaborate alternative options of solving regulatory problem (there is no specified directive on a certain decision). A common method of the selection of significant draft acts sets so-called "threshold values" of potential costs (for budget, business entities, or the economy as a whole) which may be caused by the adoption of the draft act.
In Russia, given the development of RIA procedure and clear understanding of the essence of the procedure as a cooperative communication with business and experts by government employees, formal criteria will be reduced, and the selection of draft acts for evaluation will largely depend on the discretion of the officials proceeding from the basic criteria - the degree of impact and the choice of alternatives.
The article describes a population’s activity associated with an independentand on its own responsibility realization of its own local issue-related initiatives.Th is is characterized as a form of citizens’ participation at the local level,as a social institute and as a sphere of population’s interest realization. Also thearticle describes the involvement of the Russian people’s in this form of citizens’participation as in their daily self-organization and charity activities according totheir place of residence, and evaluates the charity resources of the housing selforganizationactivists.
In spite of the necessity to modernize the economy the state is obliged to supporttraditional branches of industry as they are the principal source of taxproceeds and jobs. Such support contradicts the modernization policy, slowsdown its progress, though it is inevitable to maintain balance of the system andto prevent crisis situations.Th e goal of the article is to sum up the directions of the regional governmentactivity to provide economic growth with the minimal participation of the state.
The article is devoted to the social innovations as new solutions and approaches for solving problems in the social sphere. Core features of social innovation are introduced on the theoretical level. Due to certain characteristics of the third sector organisations they have better opportunities to introduce innovative changes and improve efficiency of decisions than private or governmental sectors. Third sector organizations are considered to be the most promising actors as they create the feasibility and the subsequent diffusion of new ideas and approaches initiated by citizens. Empirical base of the analysis includes surveys of Russian federal elites in 2008 (n = 303), 2011 (n = 300), 2013 (n = 300), 2014 (n = 300) years; all-Russia population survey (18+) in 2014 (n = 1500). Gained results demonstrate presence of the pronounced social demand for increasing role of non-profits in provision of social services. Both population and elite groups expressed such a demand. However, current impact of participation of non-profit organizations in providing social services was evaluated below average by all groups of respondents. In the article we conclude about growing expectations of non-profits' contribution in providing social services. We also result with evidences of legitimate request from the government for outsource social services to non-profit organizations
The article considers attempts to transform economic mechanisms of culture, which were made since the latest years of Soviet period. The main point of the transformations analyzed was to achieve a rational balance between the freedom of initiative of cultural goods producers and public control of their activities. Transformations were brought into action under three main directions: 1) economic empowerment of cultural organizations, including privatization of a part of state institutions; 2) implementation of normative principles of budgetary funding of state cultural institutions: 3) development of the alternative to state funding sources of cultural activities. In the article, the three stages of transformation are distinguished: the one dating back to before the collapse of the USSR, the second comprises the nineties years of the last century and the third includes the recent time. In this paper, it is shown that at each stage, in fact, the same objectives were set and the attempts to achieve them were unsuccessful leaving economic mechanisms of culture in their initial condition. In other words, there was a sort of “motion in a circle” instead of gradual development in the intended direction.
This article is devoted to the consideration of the Federal Statute № 210- F3 of 27 July 2010 About the organization of state and municipal services provision. Th is is connected with a change for an electronic way of providing public administration services and executing its functions by using a universal electronic map. Th e Statute gives, for the fi rst time, a defi nition of the universal electronic map. It has provisions on the organization of the activity to issue, to give out and to operate electronic maps, as well as provisions about the order of giving out and delivering universal electronic maps; about the refusal of people to receive the map; about providing citizens with services within the framework of the electronic bank supplement. Th e Statute fully refl ects the current situation in the organization of providing public and municipal administration services.
For the last two decades many countries have developed Public-Private Partnership (PPP) and founded some management systems. Each of those countries has its own model of PPP taking into account specific aims and goals they pursue and priorities of their economic policy. Legislative and regulatory frameworks, administrative structures and functions of government authorities that are inherent in a given country, exert a great influence upon those models. In regard to this, the level of development of market economy and institutions of civil society and of legal culture (both offi cials and businessmen) is of great importance. The article is devoted to issues of PPP governance mostly in developed countries. The role of governing authorities in PPP implementation and their standing in the government structure have been disclosed and analysed, as well as their functions and outcome of their activities.
The article deals with the organization and functioning of the risk management system in the sphere of state control. In Russia, a risk-based approach is being actively developed in some areas of public administration, but it is not universal. Full implementation of risk management systems will improve the efficiency of state inspection, as well as the comfort of doing business. The aim of the article is to summarize and analyze the Russian experience of risk management in state control, as well as the formation of a target model and proposals for its implementation.
The authors have proposed definitions of «risk» and «risk management system» that are applied to the sphere of state control (supervision). The article discusses two basic elements of risk management: risk assessment procedure and measures to minimize risk.
The article contains a description and classification of risks assessment, based on the analysis of the following elements: an object, the scale, the manner and method of evaluation. With regard to risk minimization measures the authors examined the existing differentiation of administrative regimes of the economic activities start, mandatory requirements and procedures of state control, based on the level of potential hazard controlled entity (object).
The article presents a general description of all the risk management systems, which are currently used in 12 kinds of control. The authors developed a target model of the risk-based approach in the sphere of state control, and formulated 10 basic principles, the implementation of which will create a high-performance risk management system in the monitoring activities.
The authors carry out a comparative analysis of management practices regional development due to the capitalization of cultural resources on the example of three European cultural centres - Stratford-upon-Avon, Weimar and Yasnaya Polyana. Structure relationship of key development actors within each of the three regions were analyzed by the method of «Environmental Profile, a comparative analysis was conducted using the theory of stakeholders, as well as territorial benchmarking. The authors conclude that the tourist industry has become a key tool for the capitalization of cultural heritage in all three regions. Management practice of capitalizing on the cultural heritage should ensure the transformation of the territory into a "tourist destination", which constitutes an inseparable from the attractive cultural value with a friendly and comfortable environment. Comparative analysis of the life-cycle stages of development destinations in Stratford, Weimar and Yasnaya Polyana that helped power them to tourism flows and earnings of the creative economy. The authors show that successful modern tourist destinations implement multi-stakeholder management practices to ensure the formation of a unique comfort and accessible landscapes, both tourists and local residents.
The creation of «Multifunctional centres of public services» (MFC) became a key area of administrative reform process in Russian Federation in 2008. The main role in launching MFC was given to the regions of Russia. Regional governments had to find a place, to hire labor, to provide communications and finance. But the requirement to provide federal services through MFC forced ministries and agencies to join the regional projects. In the article a common experience of federal government structures in dealing with MFC startup projects is reviewed. The key points of decisions (as the form of service provision, finance collaboration, team building and internal communication, PR and information support) are discussed, thus sketching out the best-practice and recommendations from a real experience.
The subject of the research is public assessment of civil servants’ performance in providing public services in the Federal Migration Service of the Russian Federation (FMS). The aim of the research is to determine the main factors that influenced the level of public satisfaction with public services. The research is based on the hypothesis that perception of the quality of public l services depends not only on their content and administrative provision, but also on the factors, which characterize civil servants’ performance as well as specific features of the territorial bodies of the Federal Migration Service of the Russian Federation. The following factors are considered: satisfaction with the waiting time in queues, satisfaction with politeness and competence of civil servants, the number of employees of the territorial bodies of FMS, the income level of citizens in regions, the level of migration in regions and some other factors. To determine the significance of these factors the factor analysis method is used. The data are received from the federal information system «Vash kontrol’» and the Federal Statistics Service of the Russian Federation as they were in 2014. As a result of the factor analysis the most and the least satisfied recipients of public services are classified on the regional basis. The study highlights a great influence of the migration factor – the higher the level of migration in the region, the lower the citizens’ satisfaction with public services. The results of the study can serve as a basis for further research on the best regional practices of public services provision. Furthermore, they can help identify the regions in need of a more careful monitoring of public services provision. Citation: Reshetnikova, D.S. (2016). Faktory otsenki naseleniyem effektivnosti deyatel’nosti gosudarstvennykh grazhdanskikh sluzhashchikh pri okazanii gosudarstvennykh uslug [Factors of Public Assessment of Civil Servants’ Performance in Providing Civil Services]. Public Administration Issues, n. 2, pp. 131–164 (in Russian).