There is a number of deficiencies in the current Russian state system of substitution of the increased material and physiological expenditures by civil servants who work in the regions of the Far North or in the areas equated with those in the Far North; who work in the regions of unfavorable climate and ecology; or in the remote regions; or high in the mountains or in arid deserts. They are related to the coefficients disproportions of the regional regulation of civil servants' labor payment, which depends on the type of public service, on the absence of a common system of coefficients, salary increase for military men, public servants and servants in the domestic affairs bodies, which compensate their serving in unfavorable conditions; there is no uniform registration of coefficients and rises in salaries of public servants and servicemen which is necessary for calculating the size of their pensions. The analysis of labor legislation on the matter revealed the contradictions in the payment of public servants, servicemen and workers in the home affairs bodies. The main reason for the contradictions is the absence in Russian legislation of the fundamental statutory act on the regional regulation of labor payments to the employees of the offices and companies situated in such regions, the act that would set up a common (uniform) order for granting guarantees and compensations to an appropriate group of people. Thus, the following conclusion may be drawn: it is necessary that a part of legislatively mandated labor regulations in civil service be passed; a new Federal act of law on the pension provision of the citizens of the RF in public service and their families, common for all types of civil service, be developed and passed.
The reform of budget sector’ entities enables us to compare the impact of different types of public procurement regulations in budget and autonomous organizations in Russia. Such analysis is important in the view of critical discussion on the effects of current procurement regulation (94-FL) as well as taking into account introducing of the Federal Contract System in 2014.
Using the differences in differences methodology we consider public procurements of two national universities in 2011-2012. All procurements of the first university were regulated by the 94-FL requirements. Procurements of the second university were regulated by the 94-FL until June 2011. Later this university introduced its own Procurements Provision. Comparative analysis of procurements of these organizations enables us to estimate the impact of the different types of regulations on the efficiency of public procurement measured by the level of competition and price decline in public tenders as well as timely execution of procurement contracts.
The article aims at analyzing international legislation approaches to defining the public benefit status which entitles nongovernmental noncommercial organizations to government support. International definitions of public benefit status are examined in comparison with major provisions of the Russian law on socially oriented NGOs. The analysis focused on the following key components of the public benefit status: the concept and goals of public benefit activity, legislative and statutory approaches to the status of public benefit organizations, regulation of public benefit organizations activity, benefits and responsibilities of public benefit organizations. The analysis has identified essential lacunas in Russian legislation which are mostly associated with the conditions of regulating activities of socially oriented NGOs receiving government support. The article makes a conclusion that a holistic, systemic approach to the legal definition of the status of socially oriented NGOs in the Russian law, primarily addressing the identified lacunas, is an essential condition of improving the effectiveness of government support for socially oriented organizations in Russia.
The purpose of this article is to explain the reasons for the low involvement of non-governmental organizations in Russia in the provision of social services by the state order. This entails in uncovering ways to overcome barriers to the expansion of the share of the non- governmental providers. The main challenges of the reform are considered from different sides: (1) through comparison of the expectations from the reform with the results that it gave in the developed countries over the 30 years of the reform of the welfare state, (2) from the point of view of the interests of the for-profit and non-profit organizations, (3) through the identification of the discrepancy between the emerging heterogeneity of service providers and the prevailing nature of the public governance in Russia.
It is shown that the main barrier to the expansion of the share of non-state organizations in the provision of social services is the low capacity of the social service market, which makes the market entry risky. This applies to both the charitable and the competitive market for social services. If they were more developed they could serve as a source of market maneuver and a reliable alternative to state contracts in case of failure to obtain them. For the reform to succeed, the state must be prepared to finance not only the contracts themselves, but also the development of competition and alternative markets, including quasi-market mechanisms to increase the effective demand of the population. In addition, the pluralism of state regulation should comply with the plurality of vendors and terms of service.
The Russian public procurement system places serious restrictions on the choice of competitive procedure, form of the contract and enforcement strategy applied by the procurer. In this paper we present a theoretical model of a sealed bid fi rst price auction that refl ects these restrictions. Our model implies that the procurer oft en may reach an effi cient result of the competitive procedure only by breaking the restrictions forced to it by law, either by eliminating the suppliers with the low bids or using additional information about the supplier’s type in the bid assessment process.
This article reviews approaches to optimize the subject area of regulatory impact assessment in Russia, selected OECD countries, the Eurasian Economic Commission and the European Commission. The authors set the task to systematize the approaches applied at various levels of regulation, identify best practices and provide recommendations to optimize the model of regulatory impact assessment in Russia.
The authors identified three types of "filters" that set the criteria for the selection of draft acts subject to assessment: (a) the "primary" filter that determines the scope of RIA, including types of regulations, and sometimes – certain policy areas subject to RIA, (b) the "secondary" filter aimed at the selection of acts according to their significance, and (c) exclusions from the RIA subject area. The selection of the optimal combination of criteria, providing the selection of acts, in regards to which it is possible and expedient to carry out RIA, largely determines the effectiveness of RIA institute.
Studying experience of the countries, leading in the field of RIA, allowed noting that despite differences in approaches, there is a number of common trends. Specifically, draft regulations should be the subject to assessment, first of all, if they have a significant impact on the stakeholders of regulation (excluding draft regulations aimed at the elimination of technical mistakes in the regulations, the adoption of organizational decisions by the authorities, informational documents, etc.), and, secondly, if the regulatory body is authorized to elaborate alternative options of solving regulatory problem (there is no specified directive on a certain decision). A common method of the selection of significant draft acts sets so-called "threshold values" of potential costs (for budget, business entities, or the economy as a whole) which may be caused by the adoption of the draft act.
In Russia, given the development of RIA procedure and clear understanding of the essence of the procedure as a cooperative communication with business and experts by government employees, formal criteria will be reduced, and the selection of draft acts for evaluation will largely depend on the discretion of the officials proceeding from the basic criteria - the degree of impact and the choice of alternatives.
The article describes a population’s activity associated with an independentand on its own responsibility realization of its own local issue-related initiatives.Th is is characterized as a form of citizens’ participation at the local level,as a social institute and as a sphere of population’s interest realization. Also thearticle describes the involvement of the Russian people’s in this form of citizens’participation as in their daily self-organization and charity activities according totheir place of residence, and evaluates the charity resources of the housing selforganizationactivists.
In spite of the necessity to modernize the economy the state is obliged to supporttraditional branches of industry as they are the principal source of taxproceeds and jobs. Such support contradicts the modernization policy, slowsdown its progress, though it is inevitable to maintain balance of the system andto prevent crisis situations.Th e goal of the article is to sum up the directions of the regional governmentactivity to provide economic growth with the minimal participation of the state.
The article is devoted to the social innovations as new solutions and approaches for solving problems in the social sphere. Core features of social innovation are introduced on the theoretical level. Due to certain characteristics of the third sector organisations they have better opportunities to introduce innovative changes and improve efficiency of decisions than private or governmental sectors. Third sector organizations are considered to be the most promising actors as they create the feasibility and the subsequent diffusion of new ideas and approaches initiated by citizens. Empirical base of the analysis includes surveys of Russian federal elites in 2008 (n = 303), 2011 (n = 300), 2013 (n = 300), 2014 (n = 300) years; all-Russia population survey (18+) in 2014 (n = 1500). Gained results demonstrate presence of the pronounced social demand for increasing role of non-profits in provision of social services. Both population and elite groups expressed such a demand. However, current impact of participation of non-profit organizations in providing social services was evaluated below average by all groups of respondents. In the article we conclude about growing expectations of non-profits' contribution in providing social services. We also result with evidences of legitimate request from the government for outsource social services to non-profit organizations
The article considers attempts to transform economic mechanisms of culture, which were made since the latest years of Soviet period. The main point of the transformations analyzed was to achieve a rational balance between the freedom of initiative of cultural goods producers and public control of their activities. Transformations were brought into action under three main directions: 1) economic empowerment of cultural organizations, including privatization of a part of state institutions; 2) implementation of normative principles of budgetary funding of state cultural institutions: 3) development of the alternative to state funding sources of cultural activities. In the article, the three stages of transformation are distinguished: the one dating back to before the collapse of the USSR, the second comprises the nineties years of the last century and the third includes the recent time. In this paper, it is shown that at each stage, in fact, the same objectives were set and the attempts to achieve them were unsuccessful leaving economic mechanisms of culture in their initial condition. In other words, there was a sort of “motion in a circle” instead of gradual development in the intended direction.
This article is devoted to the consideration of the Federal Statute № 210- F3 of 27 July 2010 About the organization of state and municipal services provision. Th is is connected with a change for an electronic way of providing public administration services and executing its functions by using a universal electronic map. Th e Statute gives, for the fi rst time, a defi nition of the universal electronic map. It has provisions on the organization of the activity to issue, to give out and to operate electronic maps, as well as provisions about the order of giving out and delivering universal electronic maps; about the refusal of people to receive the map; about providing citizens with services within the framework of the electronic bank supplement. Th e Statute fully refl ects the current situation in the organization of providing public and municipal administration services.
For the last two decades many countries have developed Public-Private Partnership (PPP) and founded some management systems. Each of those countries has its own model of PPP taking into account specific aims and goals they pursue and priorities of their economic policy. Legislative and regulatory frameworks, administrative structures and functions of government authorities that are inherent in a given country, exert a great influence upon those models. In regard to this, the level of development of market economy and institutions of civil society and of legal culture (both offi cials and businessmen) is of great importance. The article is devoted to issues of PPP governance mostly in developed countries. The role of governing authorities in PPP implementation and their standing in the government structure have been disclosed and analysed, as well as their functions and outcome of their activities.