This article revisits the evolution of intergenerational social mobility in Soviet and post-Soviet Russia. In particular, it looks at historical changes in the residential, educational and occupational mobility of Russians. The study contributes to the literature by extending the spectrum of institutional and historical contexts, in which the (in)equality of opportunity has been considered so far, re-examining existing evidence by using alternative datasets and a different methodology.
For an empirical investigation I utilize data from four representative cross-national surveys conducted in Russia in 1994, 2002, 2006 and 2013. Following the theoretical arguments developed in the comparative social mobility research and being informed by their empirical findings, I anticipated (1) a trend towards lesser openness in the late years of the Soviet era; (2) a temporary discontinuity of mobility patterns during the turbulent 1990s; and (3) the stagnation of social mobility in the more stable years of Russia’s post-Soviet history. However, my findings reveal no unambiguous trends suggested by previous research, moreover they contradict some of the earlier evidence. In particular, I found (1) steadily decreasing residential mobility both in absolute and relative terms (implying increasing closure of residential communities); (2) a weakening link between parental and child educational attainment in the post-Soviet era; and (3) the invariance of social fluidity in terms of occupational attainment both in the Soviet and post-Soviet periods. The paper concludes by highlighting some of the remaining questions and possible directions for future research.
Published here is the second part of the article. It begins with discussion of loglinear modeling, a technique which is used to analyze mobility tables and to explore the patterns of relative social mobility. In the rest of the article I discuss the empirical findings with regard to the three dimensions of social mobility outlined above. Finally I draw the conclusions, which generalize findings from both parts of the article.
This article is a review of studies from different disciplinary traditions on social justice carried out in post-Soviet Russia. It shows that the concept of social justice is interdisciplinary in nature and that it is considered from different positions within various disciplines: philosophy, political science, sociology, history, legal studies and social psychology. The main issues which are singled out in this analysis are the concept of justice as a regulator of social relations and the issues of social justice from the perspectives of the market economy, law, and inter-ethnic relations. The discussion focuses on the prospects of the philosophical, methodological and interdisciplinary foundations of various theoretical models of social justice, (including the limitations of the ones belonging to the Russian tradition). It also focuses on the issues of market context and reform specificity vs social justice as the basis for integration and harmony, and the challenge of designing new models of social policy. We highlight the temporal change in the character of the related debates—since the 2000s they have become more focused on solving the practical problems of social regulation and on a more dedicated search for conceptual approaches to their solution. Finally, two major dimensions of these studies are distinguished. The first considers social justice as the ideological basis of socio-political regulation, the second treats it as a practical tool of social policy. There is still a gap between them, but at the same time in several social domains (such as law, labour and international relations) there is a tendency towards reaching a rational compromise between them.