The paper deals with the development of the entrepreneurship and SME policy support agenda in some CEE and CIS countries in the process of systemic transition, basing both on desk research and the results of an own expert survey in 14 countries. Th e author points out the initial diff erences of the socio-economic context of SME policy in transitional societies from the very beginning of the systemic transition and emphasizes the role of the framework rules and regulations of the EU in the establishment of the appropriate policy in the CEE countries. He shows both similarities as well as peculiarities in the design of the SME policy in 14 Post-Socialist economies. Taking the experience of the CEE and CIS countries with very diff erent framework conditions and economic performance, the paper transfers some obtained evidence into the Russian context, offering a re-conceptualization of the established entrepreneurship and SME policy towards a more stringent consideration of both framework conditions and the state of the SME on the regional level.
The article argues the undesirability of introducing recently proposed changes in the regime of vertical restrictions regulation in Russia. They are similar to the changes, which were introduced in the United States by Robinson – Patman (1936) and Miller – Tydings (1937) Acts. But at the same time these new rules stand in sharp contrast to modern practice of antimonopoly regulation in the USA and the EC countries. At the moment even the most extreme types of vertical restrictions – the exclusive contracts that prohibit selling goods or acquiring them from any but the contracted side – are not automatically condemned as per se illegal. The softening of the regime of regulation was due to the recognition that vertical agreements should not be considered along the horizontal interactions only. The underlying motivation for their introduction can be much wider and may have nothing common with the foreclosure reasons. The article provides an overview of modern institutional theoretical approaches that could potentially be used in the analysis of exclusive agreements (and vertical restraints in general). It is not just the traditional analysis of the exclusive dealing through the lens of investment fostering, but also the considerations based on the multitask moral hazard theory, the «reference point» approach [Hart and Moor 2008] and vertical integration theory of Baker, Gibbons and Murthy.
The development of excellent legal and methodical support is necessary for a successful development of multifunctional centers of public services (MFC). For such reason The Ministry for Economic Development of the Russian Federation have monitored activity of 18 MFC in 16 regions. Public opinion polls were made, the MFCs were visited by expert teams in order to monitor the comfort standard (basic requirements to MFC’s design) implementation. The article briefly observes the results gained, with such parameters as service lists, participants, technical data for each MFC. Best practice and most common faults are also mentioned in the article, including suggestions of their origin.
There are results of a legal comparative analysis of legal regulation of the civil service types related to state guaranties (social protection) for civil servants in the article (namely: remuneration of labor and remunerative incentives, discharge of an administrative contract and re-engagement due to attainment of the maximum service age, provision of housing, pension protection). The article makes it clear that the legal regulation of civil servants’ status, state guaranties, rights and duties, restrictions are not enough to comply with the Civil Service Consistency Principle. The main reason for the misbalances and discrepancies of the social protection regulation, depending on civil service types, is redundant powers of different state authorities, starting with the top of the vertical of power- the President of Russia. These powers are implemented in a random way and disorder civil service management. Perspectives of the legal regulation unification of civil service in the area of social protection are under consideration in the article - reception and extrapolation (unification) of legal instruments for the civil service types and levels (federal and regional). The argument for the necessity to set up a Federal Civil Service Body is the need of an organizational provision of reception and unification of legal instruments. The need of redundant powers handover to the Civil Service Body is proved. The respective offers are presented: the centrally managed Civil Service Body, its immediate subordination to the RF president, different forms of civil society participation in its management (e.g. personnel matters).
This article is devoted to the infl uence that educational institutions of primary, secondary, or higher vocational level have on the set-up of social and economic vital functions of local community. Here you can fi nd a general description of the system of vocational education at the local level. According to our investigation the most advantageous educational form for a local government as well as for employers is tuition by correspondence. Institutions of vocational education in turn seem to be "fi xing agents" of young people at the local level.
There is a number of deficiencies in the current Russian state system of substitution of the increased material and physiological expenditures by civil servants who work in the regions of the Far North or in the areas equated with those in the Far North; who work in the regions of unfavorable climate and ecology; or in the remote regions; or high in the mountains or in arid deserts. They are related to the coefficients disproportions of the regional regulation of civil servants' labor payment, which depends on the type of public service, on the absence of a common system of coefficients, salary increase for military men, public servants and servants in the domestic affairs bodies, which compensate their serving in unfavorable conditions; there is no uniform registration of coefficients and rises in salaries of public servants and servicemen which is necessary for calculating the size of their pensions. The analysis of labor legislation on the matter revealed the contradictions in the payment of public servants, servicemen and workers in the home affairs bodies. The main reason for the contradictions is the absence in Russian legislation of the fundamental statutory act on the regional regulation of labor payments to the employees of the offices and companies situated in such regions, the act that would set up a common (uniform) order for granting guarantees and compensations to an appropriate group of people. Thus, the following conclusion may be drawn: it is necessary that a part of legislatively mandated labor regulations in civil service be passed; a new Federal act of law on the pension provision of the citizens of the RF in public service and their families, common for all types of civil service, be developed and passed.
The reform of budget sector’ entities enables us to compare the impact of different types of public procurement regulations in budget and autonomous organizations in Russia. Such analysis is important in the view of critical discussion on the effects of current procurement regulation (94-FL) as well as taking into account introducing of the Federal Contract System in 2014.
Using the differences in differences methodology we consider public procurements of two national universities in 2011-2012. All procurements of the first university were regulated by the 94-FL requirements. Procurements of the second university were regulated by the 94-FL until June 2011. Later this university introduced its own Procurements Provision. Comparative analysis of procurements of these organizations enables us to estimate the impact of the different types of regulations on the efficiency of public procurement measured by the level of competition and price decline in public tenders as well as timely execution of procurement contracts.
The article aims at analyzing international legislation approaches to defining the public benefit status which entitles nongovernmental noncommercial organizations to government support. International definitions of public benefit status are examined in comparison with major provisions of the Russian law on socially oriented NGOs. The analysis focused on the following key components of the public benefit status: the concept and goals of public benefit activity, legislative and statutory approaches to the status of public benefit organizations, regulation of public benefit organizations activity, benefits and responsibilities of public benefit organizations. The analysis has identified essential lacunas in Russian legislation which are mostly associated with the conditions of regulating activities of socially oriented NGOs receiving government support. The article makes a conclusion that a holistic, systemic approach to the legal definition of the status of socially oriented NGOs in the Russian law, primarily addressing the identified lacunas, is an essential condition of improving the effectiveness of government support for socially oriented organizations in Russia.
The purpose of this article is to explain the reasons for the low involvement of non-governmental organizations in Russia in the provision of social services by the state order. This entails in uncovering ways to overcome barriers to the expansion of the share of the non- governmental providers. The main challenges of the reform are considered from different sides: (1) through comparison of the expectations from the reform with the results that it gave in the developed countries over the 30 years of the reform of the welfare state, (2) from the point of view of the interests of the for-profit and non-profit organizations, (3) through the identification of the discrepancy between the emerging heterogeneity of service providers and the prevailing nature of the public governance in Russia.
It is shown that the main barrier to the expansion of the share of non-state organizations in the provision of social services is the low capacity of the social service market, which makes the market entry risky. This applies to both the charitable and the competitive market for social services. If they were more developed they could serve as a source of market maneuver and a reliable alternative to state contracts in case of failure to obtain them. For the reform to succeed, the state must be prepared to finance not only the contracts themselves, but also the development of competition and alternative markets, including quasi-market mechanisms to increase the effective demand of the population. In addition, the pluralism of state regulation should comply with the plurality of vendors and terms of service.
The Russian public procurement system places serious restrictions on the choice of competitive procedure, form of the contract and enforcement strategy applied by the procurer. In this paper we present a theoretical model of a sealed bid fi rst price auction that refl ects these restrictions. Our model implies that the procurer oft en may reach an effi cient result of the competitive procedure only by breaking the restrictions forced to it by law, either by eliminating the suppliers with the low bids or using additional information about the supplier’s type in the bid assessment process.