The introduction of an effective contract into the Russian public sector was due to the need to ensure compliance regarding wages and the quality of services provided. A review of existing studies on contract relationships within academia and practices to stimulate publication activity in Russian and foreign universities has shown that the key factors influencing scientific activity by university teachers are internal motivation, favorable academic environment, and relationships in a team. This paper analyzes two systems of stimulation of publication activity in higher education: a rating of scientific activity and a system of the effective contract. To analyze the introduction of an effective contract in educational organizations, researchers primarily use methods of content analysis of normative legal acts and sociological surveys. Based on data about the publication activity of teachers of the Institute over 6 years (3 years before the introduction of an effective contract and 3 years after), the authors conducted an econometric study of the impact of an effective contract on the quantity and quality of publications. To test the hypothesis the authors used a fixed effect model, a random effects model, and pooled ordinary least squares and least squares dummy variable. In this article the authors suggest a methodology for assessing the impact of an effective contract on the publication activity of university teachers. The authors conclude that salary and incentive payments, as well as participation in conferences and teacher training, have had a significant positive impact on the number of publications. The quality of publications was significantly influenced by incentive payments and professional development. The introduction of an effective contract had an impact only on the total number of publications.
В статье представлен аналитический обзор литературы по метрикам публикации как инструменту управления эффективностью в академических кругах. Вопросы количественной оценки исследований исследуются в свете современных взглядов на мотивацию, в частности через призму теории самоопределения (SDT). Статья дает представление об эмпирических исследованиях влияния внутренней и внешней мотивации на производительность публикаций, качество исследований и субъективное благополучие. Накопленный международный опыт в управлении эффективностью используется в качестве основы для разработки рекомендаций по улучшению академического управления.
As an inevitable result of Russia’s higher education policies of the past two decades, new university leaders in and outside of Moscow and St. Petersburg have emerged, and vertical differentiation has increased. Inequality of educational potential has a strong regional dimension, exerting a considerable delayed impact on regional socioeconomic development. Differences in universities’ resources affected their ability to adapt their instructional, research, and administrative processes to change during the pandemic, thus broadening the education and research quality gap in higher education. Some regions may face an increased outflow of youth talent to leading universities or just any colleges based in Moscow and St. Petersburg, which will certainly weaken the socioeconomic growth prospects of Russia’s regions. The pandemic accelerated the debate over this problem and demonstrated readiness of universities for joint efforts. Groundwork was laid for deploying a policy to create a cooperative network of universities and their stakeholders so as to reduce institutional differentiation and promote exchange of experience and competence among universities. This paper investigates into the main characteristics of vertical differentiation in Russian higher education that had been in place when the pandemic broke out and determined whether universities succeeded or failed in switching to distance learning. Furthermore, lockdown measures and their economic impact on different types of universities are analyzed. Finally, we discuss possible avenues and specific considerations for expanding cross-institutional collaboration and engaging stakeholders in university development
This paper opens a series of publications based on the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) data. Among the many tasks PIAAC is aimed on the identification and measurement of differences between citizens and countries in the area of key competencies, evaluation of the impact of skills on individual economic and social achievement, the effectiveness of various national educational and training systems in providing necessary skills as well as the creation of the conditions for lifelong learning. PIAAC draws the first “profile” and pathbreaking results of Russian adults’ key competencies on literacy, numeracy and problem solving in technology-rich environment. The central part of the paper is dedicated to a general analysis of the role of competencies and competence-based approach, a description of the research method, sampling and tools used (including test samples) in the PIAAC, and particularly in Russian Federation. Finally, the paper deals with the first results of the adult competencies research in Russian Federation in frames of acquired by PIAAC international data on literacy, numeracy and problem solving in technology-rich environment. The results on identified key competencies are presented in accordance with various age groups, and include gender and qualification level differences. The discussion of the first PIAAC results and brief statement of research questions for future studies are presented.
The study aims to find out how plagiarism and cheating as dishonest practices correlate with personal characteristics of students (e.g. their involvement in learning and research activities) and specific features of the learning environment. The survey of university students and professors conducted as part of the 2014 Monitoring of Education Markets and Organizations provided the empirical basis for research. The impact of factors was assessed using two binary logistic regressions with response variables describing presence/absence of cheating and plagiarism experience. We show that these types of academic misconduct are not affected by whether or not the university applies formal or informal plagiarism checking techniques. Professor intolerance to cheating and willingness to take strict punitive measures appears to play a more important role in preventing academic dishonesty. Probability of using dishonest practices is also decreased by such factors as intensive preparation for classes, confidence in working in one’s field of study in the future, orientation towards the quality of education instead of its accessibility when choosing university and major.
A field study was performed by experts from the Institute of Education, National Research University Higher School of Economics, as part of the Monitoring of Education Markets and Organizations conducted by HSE in cooperation with the Levada Center. Interviews and focus groups were organized with school principals, teachers, students and their parents in three schools teaching the most challenging type of students from low socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds, who nevertheless achieve high learning outcomes. This is a follow-up of the 2015 study of environment characteristics, management and education strategies of schools operating in unfavorable social contexts. Such schools are defined as resilient, meaning that they successfully resist the disadvantaged context beyond their control. The schools surveyed differ in the number of students, education programs, and the level of regional deprivation, yet all of them pursue similar strategies that are well-targeted and recognized by all educational process participants. Such strategies include: introducing limited selection and levelling off the student body, imposing high expectations and transparent requirements to learning outcomes, providing individual support and encouragement to students, and developing the skills boosting graduates’ chances of successful socialization. Consistent implementation of these strategies will create conditions to promote academic resilience among students. Studying the experience of such schools appears to be crucial for solving the problem of inequality in education.
In the world's leading countries the problem of appearing of schools with bad learning outcomes where mostly children from families with a low socio-economic status go is regarded nowadays as one of the key problems in educational policy. In order to solve it, laws are passed and national strategies are adopted. This survey is intended to describe main approaches and problem solution tools that are used as part of national strategies. Its relevancy is determined by the fact that support of schools working in the challenging social context and performing poorly appeared on the agenda of the Russian educational policy. World experience of researches and practical interventions in the area under question may be useful for the national education.