Neither the ecological problems facing the European Union (EU), nor the state of the environment in the EU countries, can be today definitely characterized. In spite of the efforts being made, there is practically no progress observed in the affairs of maintaining biological variety in the continent, dramatic deficit of pure water is felt. In this connection, as is stressed in the article, an especially important role is assigned to the preparation and adoption of the Constitution of the EU.
The main forms of interaction of the power institutes and the representatives of an expert community as well as conditions of civil responsibility are considered in the article. In the process of research fifteen expert semi-structured interview with respondents from Moscow and St. Petersburg, who have experience of activity in government structures and collaboration with international were performed during Spring 2017. Analysis of texts of interviews was made with using of Werner J. Patzelt category scheme of content analysis and program QDA Miner Light. According to criteria of expert’s affiliation to government or non-government organization (or absence of any affiliation) and distance from power’s centers six main expert categories was proposed. This groups of experts participates as in politics process – fight for winning and retention of power, as in policy process – preparation and implementation of policy decisions. Along with previously known models of interaction of experts and governmental structures – linear-autonomic model, model of virtuous reason, and a “model of the prepaid result” the fourth model was proposed. It is model of initiative expertise, where preparation of policy decisions take part without participation of governmental structures. It was shown, that necessary level of citizen responsibility of experts can be achieved owing to corporative ethics of expert community, and professional expert’s association can be support this process.
The paper devoted to the analysis of development of expert communities and “think tanks” in three neighbor Russian regions: Chelyabinskaya and Sverdlovskayaoblasti and Permskiykray. It was demonstrated on the experience of these three regions that prominent conditions for the arising ‘think tanks’ of different types are a real level of political plurality and existence of community of political scientists.
The article is devoted to the history and development of Russian market of political technologies and profession of political consultant, which are treated as a special phenomenon that has influenced and continues to influence the historical destiny of the country. The author identifies seven stages in the history of the development of the domestic political technology market that coincide with the stages of development of statehood and democratic institutions in modern Russia: 1) The emergence of the market. "The political enthusiasm" (1985-1993); 2) Legitimization and mythologizing of political consulting and political technologies in Russia (1993-1996); 3) The "Golden Age" of political technologies in Russia (1996-2000); 4) The stagnation of the market and administration (2000-2004); 5) "Clinical death" of the market for political technologies (2004-2008); 6) The degradation of traditional technologies and the transfer of creative activity in the Internet space (2008-2011); 7) The revival of the market for political technologies (2011-2015). Electoral technologies are directly related to the parameters of the political system in the country as well. The author analyzes the landmark election campaigns since the early 1990s to 2014, sets the pattern of development of political technologies in the Russian reality and gives his own interpretation of the key trends in the organization of modern political process. The author points out that the profession of political consultant / in the field of political technologies in Russia has a broader application than in the so-called developed democracies, and that Russian professionals in this sphere are, as a rule, better qualified. According to the author, the demand for high qualified political technologists will continue to grow, despite the "folding of democratic project", according to some experts.
Numerous studies of support of national leaders indicate that the President's approval ratings increase substantially during international conflicts and tragedies. In such a way, the Falklands War greatly influenced the popularity of Margaret Thatcher. The Gulf War led to a significant increase in the public approval of George H.W. Bush and the terrorist attack of 9/11 was a push for greater support for George. W. Bush. A number of examples can be continued. The article analyzes the phenomenon of consolidation of the population around a national leader in times of crisis, called «rally around the flag». We systematize the literature on the subject and draw conclusions on a number of fundamental premises of the theory. Thus, the events for which we may experience this effect must meet the following criteria: relevance to society as a whole, the international level, the suddenness, the direct participation of the President in solving the problem and the existence of personified «other». The emergence of rally effect is closely connected with characteristics of media coverage of the issues and patriotism of the population. The article also notes that, despite the considerable scale, which this effect can reach (up to 35% of approval rating), the duration of its preservation is not so large (up to six months). It reduces the temptation for the authorities to provoke conflicts with the purpose of acquiring more public support.
The study has two major focuses. The first one is of a methodological kind: we investigate the capabilities of a formal dynamic model to link theory and empirical estimation techniques. The other one is much more specified: we deal with the problems of public good provision and public capital accumulation and depreciation. Tying it all together, we demonstrate how formal theory can adjust the evaluation of public investment efficiency.
The first part of the paper presents the dynamic formal model construction. The core of it is Cobb-Douglas production function with public and private capital as input factors. Public capital stock is increased by budget investment inflow. A set of parameters which regulate system’s efficiency enters the model. They are total factor productivity, public investment effectiveness and the efficiency of public assets’ maintenance and utilization. We also define a special policy space of the model.
In the major part of the paper we examine the data, generated by various models with different efficiency parameter values, via Data envelopment analysis (DEA). We demonstrate that the best estimates are obtained when we use cumulative inputs (the sum of budgets investments over a few time periods). Thus we show that dynamic formal model analysis can make a practical contribution to estimation techniques’ “fine tuning”.
The article by R. F. Turovsky, a young scholar, presents an attempt to elicit the historicocultural roots of the current conflict in Yugoslavia. Owing to a complex of factors, differences have been building up within the historico-cultural Yugoslav community. The field of opposition that has emerged at present, is qualified by the author as, mainly, confessional one, the line of the gravest split in this field having been brought about by contradictions between the Serbs, on the one hand, and the rest of the ethno-confessional communities, on the other. Turovsky offers detailed comparative analysis of the specific features of the peoples of Yugoslavia, of their respective national ideas. The author comes to the conclusion that it is ethnocentric forms of the development of political relations that became the basic cause of the conflict-bearing situation in Yugoslavia. The author calls, in view of the tragic experience of Yugoslavia, to reconsider, and to give renovated meaning to, a number of traditional political values, the idea of national state being one of the instances.