This article addresses contemporary definitions of the self in both philosophical and cognitive neuroscience literature. In this article, I attempt to operationally define the self by amalgamating Gallagher’s model of the narrative and minimal self with evidence from both psychological and cognitive neuroscience. Gallagher defines the narrative self as reflecting on past experiences and future endeavors. The narrative self shapes our expectations, beliefs, thoughts, feelings and actions and is susceptible to these beliefs, thoughts, feelings and actions when making decisions. Using this definition, Gallagher describes the narrative self as an ensemble of selves, a forever changing entity, contingent on mood, state and motivation. On the other hand, the minimal self is simply the self in the present objective state, irrespective of a person’s memories or future decisions. As Gallagher had described it, the minimal self is composed of the sense of ownership and the sense of agency. The sense of ownership is the acknowledgment of one’s own sense of self, which can be understood as a separate entity from non self objects. The sense of agency, however, is the understanding that the individual is the source of an action. In the next section, I discuss the operational definition of the self within the cognitive neuroscience literature. Using these philosophical definitions, I offer a bridge between these perspectives by comparing Gallagher’s narrative self with the default mode network.
The author proposes a formal model of subject, so called four resources model. Proposing the model of «double refleсtion» the author demonstrates that self refleсtion is able to increase the stimulus attraction and describes hypothetic conditions of inevitability of actions towards temptation determined by self refleсtion and stimulus' primary valence. The criteria for optimum of psychological well-being («I want something that I don't have» and «I will have something I want») are formulated and quantitatively specified. Hereof follows "the golden rule of harmony" in interrelations of level of subject's claims (0.62) and level of requested external resources (0.38) («golden proportion»: 0.62 + 0.622 = = 0.62 + 0.38 = 1). The model of optimum of psychological well being is validated by the author's own studies as well as by means of interpretation of empirical data obtained by other investigators in studies of achievement motivation (the revision of J.W. Atkinson's classic model of risk taking).
This article discusses and analyzes the emigration intentions of youth (N = 203) using the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1982) and their relationship with socio-psychological factors. In particular, we study relationship of emigration intentions with the fairly new concept - the socio-psychological capital. Socio-psychological capital is seen as a resource of psychological attitudes, accessible to individuals belonging to a group. The structure of the socio-psychological capital are: trust, , civic identity, ethnic tolerance and perceived social capital. Case studies on the youth (18 to 24 years) showed that civic identity negatively correlated with emigration intentions. This research also provides a brief analysis of the socio-psychological capital of young people.
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of socio - psychological capital on the individual 's intention to open a private business. The hypothesis of our study was that people who intend to start their own business have a higher socio- psychological capital, which positively affects their intention to start their own business . Social and psychological capital personality - a resource person , which is a degree of balance in the exchange relationship with the immediate environment and the social environment that allows her to get help and improve the social environment. The sample included 269 respondents EU nationals to start their own business . As a socio- psychological capital were assessed three types of resources: the different resources obtainable from family and friends ( willingness to help in the event of financial, legal, bureaucratic problems) , the number of friends , frequency of contact with family members , involvement in the activities of various organizations. In assessing the intention of opening your own business , we relied on the theory of planned behavior A.Ayzena (Ajzen, 1991). Additionally used the construct of "implementation intentions » (Gollwitzer, 1999) , allowing to estimate the correlation honey intention and implementation. To assess the contribution of social and psychological capital in the implementation of the entrepreneurial intention of using the structural equation modeling (Joreskog & Sorbom, 1993) study showed the socio- psychological capital (resources, which can be represented family involvement in the formal network of relationships ) shows a direct positive impact on intention to start a business , as well as on the perceived behavioral control and installation. The exception is one of the components of social and psychological capital - the number of friends that demonstrates the opposite effect on the components of planned behavior . The study concluded that the social and psychological capital is a facilitator of the intention to open private businesses.
Social beliefs are notions about the nature of other people, their behavior, and the way one should respond to their actions. Social beliefs include beliefs in dangerous world (a view of society as chaotic, unpredictable, and aggressive) and jungle world (a view of other people as lying and manipulative agents trying to “win against” one). This paper presents the results of a study that aimed to check the structural validity of Russian versions of two scales by J. Duckitt, measuring beliefs in dangerous and jungle world. The participants were students of universities from Moscow and Kazan region, as well as employees of commercial organizations (N = 1938, mean age 20.2). The respondents completed a 12-item Russian version of dangerous world belief scale and a 20-item Russian version of jungle world belief scale. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were used to investigate the structure. For the dangerous world belief scale, a secondorder order factor model (with two first-order factors) for the full questionnaire showed the best fit. For the jungle world beliefs scale, a second-order factor model (also with two first-order factors) was developed for a subset of 12 items. The authors discuss the compatibility of social beliefs scales with Russian cultural context.
International conflicts take place throughout the course of human history and result in serious economic and political aftermaths. Seeking to protect their interests, countries-participants use various methods of interaction: from peace negotiations to military actions. In psychological studies great attention is paid to factors that influence the support for military intervention in other countries affairs as means of international conflicts resolution. But the data of the research have two main limitations. Firstly, they consider attitudes toward military intervention of one’s own country (in-group), but not to the analogical activity of other countries (out-groups). Secondly, as the main predictor of the attitudes toward military intervention authoritarianism is studied, but not national identification. In this research two ways of formation of attitudes toward military intervention in other countries affairs were studied. According to the theory of authoritative personality we hypothesized that belief in dangerous world would predict the level of authoritarianism, which, in its turn, would predict the attitude toward military intervention of own country (in-group) and other countries (out-groups). In the same time, according to the theory of social identity we hypothesized that benevolence of the world beliefs predict the strength of national identification, which, in its turn, also predicts attitudes toward the use of military power for the resolution of international conflict. 844 Russian residents took part in the survey. They filled the on-line version of the questionnaire, which included scales of measuring the dangerous and benevolent world beliefs, right authoritarianism, national identification and attitudes toward introduction of Russian, United Nations and NATO troops in the territory of Ukraine. To test the hypotheses we used Structural Equations Modeling. It showed that the more Russians believed in the dangerous world, the higher was the level of authoritarianism. The more they believed in benevolent world, the higher was the level of national identification. The higher were the levels of authoritarianism and national identification, the more they supported the introduction of Russian troops in Ukraine and the less they supported the introduction of UN and NATO troops.
The present article addresses the notion of identity management strategies. The significance of this concept for development of Social Identity Theory and understanding of intergroup relations is discussed. Contradictions that were found while testing the interrelations between ingroup identification, ingroup favoritism, attitudes toward outgroups, and self-esteem serve as a starting point for the author’s reasoning. In order to find causes of such contradictions and possible ways of their solving the author performed theoretical analysis of methodological and empirical research based on Social Identity Theory, as well as functional analysis in related areas. Based on this analysis two suggestions were made. Firstly, Social Identity Theory implicitly contains two meanings of social identity that could lead to discrepancies in empirical results. On the one hand, identity is regarded as just an intermediate element between categorization and comparison, on the other hand, identity is a substantive phenomenon supported by the range of management strategies. Secondly, identity management strategies could specify functions that identity carries out for both an individual and a group. Nevertheless, Social Identity Theory focuses only on those functions that identity carries out for the individual himself. Shifting the focus toward functions that identity executes for a group leads to new suggestions about the initial contradictions. First of all, this leads to doubts in personal self-esteem enhancement as the only “ultimate goal” of strong group commitment. Moreover, this leaves the question open, “at whose expense” the positivity of identity is maintained in the process of intergroup comparisons. Hence, one can expect that while some identity management strategies bring positive outcomes for outgroup attitudes, other strategies bring negative outcomes, which makes identity management strategies a crucial explanatory construct for the study of intergroup relations.
This study focuses on students’ subjective well-being and the association between subjective well-being and the level of academic achievement in elementary school. Despite the fact that subjective well-being in school is a significant predictor of various life outcomes in adulthood and an indicator of education effectiveness along with academic achievement, it is not sufficiently studied at the elementary school age. Complex models of subjective well-being in school usually include relations with peers, since relationships with classmates are an important indicator of a child's adaptation at school (Ladd, Kochenderfer, Coleman, 1996) and are able to predict subjective well-being at school (Tian, Tian, & Huebner, 2016). We can distinguish two aspects of relations with classmates – cooperation and hostility, which associate with academic achievement. In this study, the level of academic achievement was examined with the SAM-math test (Student Achievement Monitoring in Mathematics) (Nezhnov, Kardanova, Vasilyeva, Ludlow, 2015). It is a standardized assessment tool designed to measure theoretically and empirically grounded levels of mathematical knowledge acquisition: procedural, conceptual, and functional. Subjective well-being at school was measured with the Russian version of the Brief Adolescents' Subjective Well-Being in School Scale (Tian, Wang, Huebner, 2015) and the Russian version of the Classroom Friendship Questionnaire (Turilova-Miščenko, Raščevska, 2008) was applied to measure cooperation and hostility. The sample included 144 fourth grade students of different levels of academic achievement. One-way ANOVA indicated differences in the level of satisfaction with the school, the number of friends, the frequency of cooperation with classmates and the frequency of hostility in communication with classmates between students with a lower level of academic achievement and students with a higher level of academic achievement. At the same time, there was no difference in the affective component of subjective well-being.
The paper is focused on the problem of human creativity within the process of innovation. The most important determinants of the efficacy of different stages of the innovative process are analyzed, as well as their associations. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of process and outcome properties of group creative activity, which involves new idea production, as well as idea improvement and practical implementation. Empirical studies of productive thinking at different stages of the innovative process are described.
The article proposes application of the level approach to attention research. Four basic principles of levelbased architecture of attention are derived from theoretical premises of the level approach to cognition and the psychology of attention as well as from empirical data. The author offers a variant of empirical research program which is based on the logic of the level approach. Finally the 5 level model of attention processes organization is proposed on the basis on experimental data. The article also contains examples of author's empirical studies which are interpreted in the level approach framework. The first study demonstrates the functioning of the redundancy principle (which is one the basic principles stated in study) in the visual inspection tasks. The second study shows the differences in the efficiency of memorizing the same material and the differences in experiencing of subjective confidence in mnemonic judgments depending on the leading level of attention in task solving.