Phase images of biological specimens were obtained by the method of Quadriwave Lateral Shearing Interferometry (QWLSI). The QWLSI technique produces, at high resolution, phase images of the cells having been exposed to a plasma treatment and enables the quantitative analysis of the changes in the surface area of the cells over time. Morphological changes in the HTori normal thyroid cells were demonstrated using this method. There was a comparison of the cell behaviour between control cells, cells treated by plasma of a nanosecond dielectric barrier discharge, including cells pre-treated by catalase, and cells treated with an equivalent amount of H2O2. The major changes in the cell membrane morphology were observed at only 5min after the plasma treatment. The primary role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in this degradation is suggested. Deformation and condensation of the cell nucleus were observed 2–3 h after the treatment and are supposedly related to apoptosis induction. The coupling of the phase QWLSI with immunofluorescence imaging would give a deeper insight into the mechanisms of plasma induced cell death.
Background: The oxytocin (OT) system is known to be implicated in the regulation of complex social behavior, particularly empathy and parenting. The goal of this study was to estimate the gender and population differences in polymorphisms of two oxytocin receptor gene SNPs, rs53576 and rs2254298, in four populations. Results: These data were compared with each other and with 14 samples from the corresponding regions retrieved from the 1000 Genomes database. Low level of heterozygosity was observed for both SNPs in all populations in this study (rs53576: Catalonian, Hobs = 0.413; Hadza, Hobs = 0.556; sr2254698: Khanty-Mansi, Hobs = 0.250; Datoga, Hobs = 0.550). The amount of variance due to regional variability was almost equal for both SNPs (rs53576: FRT = 0.086, rs2554298: FRT = 0.072), whereas variance for the population level of variability was twice bigger for rs2554298 (rs53576: FST = 0.127, rs2554298: FST = 0.162). Pairwise coefficients of fixation demonstrate that the Hadza were well differentiated from other African populations except of Datoga, the Datoga were weakly differentiated from other African origin populations, the Ob Ugric people were extremely differentiated from all other populations. Catalans were extremely differentiated of Asian populations. Conclusions: It is hypothesized on the base of spatial distribution of the evolutionary novel A alleles of the both OXTR gene loci, that the spread of alleles of rs22542298 and rs53376 SNPs may be associated to some extant with manipulation of parental investment in humans.
The paper looks into the dynamics of the population size of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus after the census of 1989. Regions and cities of these countries were the focus of the research (territorial units level NUTS-3). The analysis addresses the question to what degree the remoteness from the regional centre, i.e. the position in the core-periphery system, influences the dynamics of the population size of the territorial units of the given level. For the analytical purposes the distinction has been made between the regional centres including adjacent suburban areas and internal regional periphery comprising districts and cities. The main indicator employed was the distance between the periphery areas and regional centres. The results of the analysis show that in spite of the depopulation of all three countries and severe transformational crisis, there was a steady growth of the population size in the regional centres, while the periphery areas of the regions continued to lose the population. The mentioned differences are primarily determined by migration flows, since the fertility rates are below the replacement level in all the countries’ territories. Population tends to concentrate in the regional centres, which means urbanisation has not been completed yet. While similar patterns of population decline are observed in the periphery areas of Ukraine and Belarus, in Russia the depopulation rates are negatively influenced by the factor of remoteness of a periphery area from the regional centre. All three countries experienced rural population decline everywhere but suburban areas of the regional centres.
The hypothesis that population pressure causes increased warfare has been recently criticized on the empirical grounds. Both studies focusing on specific historical societies and analyses of cross-cultural data fail to find positive correlation between population density and incidence of warfare. In this paper we argue that such negative results do not falsify the population-warfare hypothesis. Population and warfare are dynamical variables, and if their interaction causes sustained oscillations, then we do not in general expect to find strong correlation between the two variables measured at the same time (that is, unlagged). We explore mathematically what the dynamical patterns of interaction between population and warfare (focusing on internal warfare) might be in both stateless and state societies. Next, we test the model predictions in several empirical case studies: early modern England, Han and Tang China, and the Roman Empire. Our empirical results support the population-warfare theory: we find that there is a tendency for population numbers and internal warfare intensity to oscillate with the same period but shifted in phase (with warfare peaks following population peaks). Furthermore, the rates of change of the two variables behave precisely as predicted by the theory: population rate of change is negatively affected by warfare intensity, while warfare rate of change is positively affected by population density.
In this paper, we consider a model of the influence of atmospheric infrasonic waves on VLF magnetospheric whistler wave excitation. This excitation occurs as a result of a succession of processes: a modulation of the plasma density by acoustic-gravity waves in the ionosphere, a reflection of the whistlers by ionosphere modulation, and a modification of whistler wave generation in the magnetospheric resonator. A variation of the magnetospheric resonator Q-factor has an influence on the operation of the plasma magnetospheric maser, where the active substances are radiation belt particles, and the working modes are electromagnetic whistler waves. The magnetospheric maser is an oscillating system which can be responsible for the excitation of self-oscillations. These self-oscillations are frequently characterized by alternating stages of accumulation and precipitation of energetic particles into the ionosphere during a pulse of whistler emissions. Numerical and analytical investigations of the response of self-oscillations to harmonic oscillations of the whistler reflection coefficient shows that even a small modulation rate can significantly change magnetospheric VLF emissions. Our results can explain the causes of the modulation of energetic electron fluxes and whistler wave intensity with a time scale from 10 to 150 s in the day-side magnetosphere. Such quasi-periodic VLF emissions are often observed in the sub-auroral and auroral magnetosphere and have a noticeable effect on the formation of space weather phenomena.
Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to analyze plasma proteins of volunteers (control) and patients with glioblastoma multiform (GBM). A database search was pre-set with a variable post-translational modification (PTM): phosphorylation, acetylation or ubiquitination. There were no significant differences between the control and the GBM groups regarding the number of protein identifications, sequence coverage or number of PTMs. However, in GBM plasma, we unambiguously observed a decreased fraction in post-translationally modified peptides identified with high quality. The disease-specific PTM patterns were extracted and mapped to the set of FDA-approved plasma protein markers. Decreases of 46% and 24% in the number of acetylated and ubiquitinated peptides, respectively, were observed in the GBM samples. Significance of capturing disease-associated patterns of protein modifications was envisaged.
The run-up of random long-wave ensemble (swell, storm surge, and tsunami) on the constant-slope beach is studied in the framework of the nonlinear shallow-water theory in the approximation of non-breaking waves. If the incident wave approaches the shore from the deepest water, run-up characteristics can be found in two stages: in the first stage, linear equations are solved and the wave characteristics at the fixed (undisturbed) shoreline are found, and in the second stage the nonlinear dynamics of the moving shoreline is studied by means of the Riemann (nonlinear) transformation of linear solutions. In this paper, detailed results are obtained for quasi-harmonic (narrow-band) waves with random amplitude and phase. It is shown that the probabilistic characteristics of the run-up extremes can be found from the linear theory, while the same ones of the moving shoreline are from the nonlinear theory. The role of wave-breaking due to large-amplitude outliers is discussed, so that it becomes necessary to consider wave ensembles with non-Gaussian statistics within the framework of the analytical theory of nonbreaking waves. The basic formulas for calculating the probabilistic characteristics of the moving shoreline and its velocity through the incident wave characteristics are given. They can be used for estimates of the flooding zone characteristics in marine natural hazards.
Russian Federation inherited a wide and well-developed timber harvesting infrastructure from the Soviet Union. It also inherited relatively strong timber processing industry, especially a network of giant pulp-and-paper plants with access to abundant water supply and cheap electricity. However, a number of factors deteriorate Russia's timber processing competitiveness. First, military security reasons made Soviet Union locate its processing industry, including timber processing, deep within the continent. Therefore, major Russian pulp-and-paper plants, as well as sawmills, panels and plywood plants face higher transportation costs when exporting their production than their counterparts in the United States and Finland. Second, major timber processing plants had been technologically advanced in time of deployment (1970-1980-s), but their technology and machinery has become quite backward over the decades, while investment in the production has nearly stopped altogether in 1990-s and was scarce in 2000-s.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) play an important role in synaptic plasticity and learning, as well as in nociception and mechanosensation. ASICs are involved in pain and in neurological and psychiatric diseases, but their therapeutic potential is limited by the lack of ligands activating them at physiological pH. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We extracted, purified and determined the structure of a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid, lindoldhamine, (LIN) from laurel leaves. Its effect on ASIC3 channels were characterized, using two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiological recordings from Xenopus laevis oocytes. KEY RESULTS At pH 7.4 or higher, LIN activated a sustained, proton-independent, current through rat and human ASIC3 channels, but not rat ASIC1a or ASIC2a channels. LIN also potentiated proton-induced transient currents and promoted recovery from desensitization in human, but not rat, ASIC3 channels. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS We describe a novel ASIC subtype-specific agonist LIN, which induced proton-independent activation of human and rat ASIC3 channels at physiological pH. LIN also acts as a positive allosteric modulator of human, but not rat, ASIC3 channels. This unique, species-selective, ligand of ASIC3, opens new avenues in studies of ASIC structure and function, as well as providing new approaches to drug design.
Eukaryotic cells possess a sensible chemical compass allowing them to orient toward sources of soluble chemicals. The extracellular chemical signal triggers separation of the cell membrane into two domains populated by different phospholipid molecules and oriented along the signal anisotropy. We propose a theory of this polarization process, which is articulated into subsequent stages of germ nucleation, patch coarsening, and merging into a single domain. We find that the polarization time, t, depends on the anisotropy degree through the power law t / 2, and that in a cell of radius R there should exist a threshold value th / R1 for the smallest detectable anisotropy
Pair-wise sequence alignment is the basic method of comparative analysis of proteins and nucleic acids. Studying the results of alignment one has to consider two questions^ (1) did the program find all the interesting similarities (“sensitivity”) and (2) are all the found similarities interesting (“selectivity‘’). Definitely, one has to specify, what alignments are considered as the interesting ones. Analogous questions can be addressed to each of the obtained alignments: (3) which part of the aligned positions are aligned correctly (“confidence”) and (4) does alignment contain all pairs of the corresponding positions of compared sequences (“accuracy”). Naturally, the answer on the questions depends on the definition of correct alignment. The presentation addresses above two pairs of questions that are extremely important in interpreting of the results of sequence comparison.
We establish the equivalence between the refined topological vertex of Iqbal-Kozcaz-Vafa and a certain representation theory of the quantum algebra of type W1+∞ introduced by Miki. Our construction involves trivalent intertwining operators Φ and Φ* associated with triples of the bosonic Fock modules. Resembling the topological vertex, a triple of vectors ∈ Z2 is attached to each intertwining operator, which satisfy the Calabi-Yau and smoothness conditions. It is shown that certain matrix elements of Φ and Φ* give the refined topological vertex Cλμν (t, q) of Iqbal-Kozcaz-Vafa. With another choice of basis, we recover the refined topological vertex Cλμν (q, t) of Awata-Kanno. The gluing factors appears correctly when we consider any compositions of Φ and Φ*. The spectral parameters attached to Fock spaces play the role of the Kahler parameters.
Despite a century of research into visual word recognition, basic questions remain unresolved about the functional architecture of the process that maps visual inputs from orthographic analysis onto lexical form and meaning and about the units of analysis in terms of which these processes are conducted. Here we use magnetoencephalography, supported by a masked priming behavioral study, to address these questions using contrasting sets of simple (walk), complex (swimmer), and pseudo-complex (corner) forms. Early analyses of orthographic structure, detectable in bilateral posterior temporal regions within a 150-230 msec time frame, are shown to segment the visual input into linguistic substrings (words and morphemes) that trigger lexical access in left middle temporal locations from 300 msec. These are primarily feedforward processes and are not initially constrained by lexical-level variables. Lexical constraints become significant from 390 msec, in both simple and complex words, with increased processing of pseudowords and pseudo-complex forms. These results, consistent with morpho-orthographic models based on masked priming data, map out the real-time functional architecture of visual word recognition, establishing basic feedforward processing relationships between orthographic form, morphological structure, and lexical meaning
Bacteria are known to exchange genetic information by horizontal gene transfer. Since the frequency of homologous recombination depends on the similarity between the recombining segments, several studies examined whether this could lead to the emergence of subspecies. Most of them simulated fixed-size Wright-Fisher populations, in which the genetic drift should be taken into account. Here, we use nonlinear Markov processes to describe a bacterial population evolving under mutation and recombination. We consider a population structure as a probability measure on the space of genomes. This approach implies the infinite population size limit, and thus, the genetic drift is not assumed. We prove that under these conditions, the emergence of subspecies is impossible.
A community of hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) consists of a unique organization with four structural levels and marked hierarchical relationships between males and females. This makes it an ideal system for testing the hypothesis that relationship quality influences reconciliation between individuals. Post-conflict reconciliation was studied in hamadryas baboons. The behavior of 436 conflicting pairs was studied. Reconciliation was found to be characteristic of pairs of different composition, including: 1) pairs consisting of a male and a female from his harem; 2) pairs consisting of two females from the same harem; 3) pairs consisting of two related animals; 4) pairs consisting of two males; 5) pairs including a female and a young (almost adult) male. Significant differences in reconciliatory tendencies were seen in different pair categories, along with a high level of selectivity of the interactions between former antagonists, evidencing that the probability of reconciliation between hamadryas baboon individuals depends on the quality of the relationships between them. Keywords: hamadryas baboons, reconciliation, male-female bonds.
Arctic driftwood represents a unique proxy archive at the interface of marine and terrestrial environments. Combined wood anatomical and dendrochronological analyses have been used to detect the origin of driftwood and may allow past timber floating activities, as well as past sea ice and ocean current dynamics to be reconstructed. However, the success of driftwood provenancing studies depends on the length, number, and quality of circumpolar boreal reference chronologies. Here, we introduce a Eurasian-wide high-latitude network of 286 ring width chronologies from the International Tree Ring Data Bank (ITRDB) and 160 additional sites comprising the three main boreal conifers Pinus, Larix, and Picea. We assess the correlation structure within the network to identify growth patterns in the catchment areas of large Eurasian rivers, the main driftwood deliverers. The occurrence of common growth patterns between and differing patterns within catchments indicates the importance of biogeographic zones for ring width formation and emphasizes the degree of spatial precision when provenancing. Reference chronologies covering millennial timescales are so far restricted to a few larch sites in Central and Eastern Siberia (eastern Taimyr, Yamal Peninsula and north-eastern Yakutia), as well as several pine sites in Scandinavia, where large rivers are missing though. The general good spatial coverage of tree-ring sites across northern Eurasia indicates the need for updating and extending existing chronologies rather than developing new sites.
The regional differentiation of buyers' activity in the primary market of the Moscow agglomeration (MA) is analyzed based on address data of the buyers' initial registration. Acquisition of real estate by nonresident buyers (17% of transactions in Moscow and 23% in Moscow oblast) provides housing for about 100000 people per year, or 40% of the net migration inflow. The factor of the agglomeration effect gives leadership to buyers from St. Petersburg, and the factor of natural resource rent produces a high share of buyers from the Khanty–Mansi and Yamalo-Nenets autonomous okrugs (6.4% vs 1.6% of population), making their residents purchase real estate in Moscow under a low level of migration to the Moscow metropolitan area (MMA). Most nonresident buyers come from regions of the Russian provincial areas and earn the money to buy their housing in the labor market of the MMA. The distance factor makes the share of buyers from firstorder neighboring regions of the MMA 2.1 times higher than their share in the population in Moscow and 2.5 times higher than in Moscow oblast.
About the spatial-temporal approach in terrorism studies
We often change our decisions and judgments to conform with normative group behavior. However, the neural mechanisms of social conformity remain unclear. Here we show, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, that conformity is based on mechanisms that comply with principles of reinforcement learning. We found that individual judgments of facial attractiveness are adjusted in line with group opinion. Conflict with group opinion triggered a neuronal response in the rostral cingulate zone and the ventral striatum similar to the "prediction error" signal suggested by neuroscientific models of reinforcement learning. The amplitude of the conflict-related signal predicted subsequent conforming behavioral adjustments. Furthermore, the individual amplitude of the conflict-related signal in the ventral striatum correlated with differences in conforming behavior across subjects. These findings provide evidence that social group norms evoke conformity via learning mechanisms reflected in the activity of the rostral cingulate zone and ventral striatum.