The research explores that the emulating AI is focused on the so-called naturalistic understanding of sense – as a meaning. But if we assume that the category of sense has the attributes of transcendence and is not identical to the meaning, then we may be able to shed light on problems of natural semantics emulation. The research emphasizes valuable and teleological aspects of meaning, which together lead to the concept of "metaphysical sense". The hypothesis that the "metaphysical meaning" is the basis of any cognitive acts is proved. The computerization of meaning in this case should emulate the system of values or ethics that represents an apparent large problem.
The article is devoted to identifying trends in studies of Buddhist epistemology and logic (hetu-vidyā) conducted in the USA, based on Pali, Sanskrit and Tibetan sources, as well as the contents and evaluation of the methodological discussions of the American Buddhologists. It continues the analysis of the area of Buddhist studies, presented in earlier publications of the author on the research of hetu-vidyā in Europe and in Russia. In the article there are examined the ideas of such leading experts as K. Potter, R. Robinson, A. Wayman, R. Chi, C. Huntington, J. Cabezon, J. Garfield, J. Blumenthal, G. Dreyfus, J. Dunn, and others. Some of them believe in necessity of using symbolic language and concepts of Western logic for studies on the Buddhist logico-epistemological tradition (K. Potter, R. Chi, R. Robinson, J. Garfield), the other (S. Huntington) categorically deny their usefulness. Nāgārjuna’s relation to logic received extremely contradictory evaluations from the researchers. Some of them, like C. Huntington, believed that Nāgārjuna used logic exclusively for the destruction of logic, others, like R. Robinson, proved that Nāgārjuna was well equipped with knowledge of axioms and rules of inference, and he employed them to substantiate metaphysical concepts.
In the article Spinoza's and Lev Tolstoy's ideas are compared in the course of examining the oeuvres of the Russian writer. The relationship and difference between the metaphysical, religious and ethical conceptions of these two thinkers is being explained, as well as Spinoza's influence on the formation of Tolstoy's worldview The special attention is paid to the marginalia, left by Tolstoy on the pages of Spinoza's treatises. These marginalia has been found in his library at Yasnaya Polyana.
This paper is concerned with one of the most prominent examples of German intellectual history at the beginning of the 20th century, the George circle. The study identifies three principles which are crucial for the “political theology” of the George circle – the principle of covenant, the principle of the charismatic leader and the principle of dominance and service. The main hypothesis is that the George circle was an ideologically integrated group of intellectuals who sought to reform politics by means of aesthetics, and influenced the language and ideology of the “conservative revolution” in Weimar Germany.
The story "Life Basil Thebes" offers great material for research and interpretation. The philosophical and cultural ideas, which can be easily discovered in the work - questions of faith and irreligion, human and God, miracle and the absurd (putting in a radical and uncompromising form) – show the deep connection between Andreev and the traditions of existential philosophy from Kierkegaard to Heidegger and Camus. These central questions of Andreev’s literary-artistic world, certainly, deserve careful hermeneutic analysis. In this case, at the heart of the story we find an attempt to answer the key question of existential philosophy: "... Is it possible to live without being called from on high."
The article discusses the philosophical and historical optics of Turgenev’s novels, and his special analytical method in research of Russian culture. The author examines the philosophical debate on Turgenev-novelist and thinker. According to critics, Turgenev's novels are an encyclopedia of Russian life. However, the Turgenev’s method of depicting the phenomena of Russian reality can not be considered only a literary technique. His skill is not limited to the definition “psychological realism”. Still there are no studies that would consider Turgenev's novels within the framework of the philosophy of Russian history and culture in contemporary Humanities. This fact gives additional difficulties in studies on Turgenev. I analyze the Russian intellectual discourse in dialogue with the Western tradition Turgenev’s studies. The paper reconstructs Turgenev's intellectual profile as a philosopher of history and social analyst. The article formulates a thesis the possibility of interpretations of his novels as essay on social and philosophical problems of Russian society and Analytics of Russian history and culture. The article discusses the philosophical and historical meaning of the writer's novels, as well as the horizon of Turgenev-thinker's social prognostics.
In his article the author considers one of the key phenomenon of the Russian intellectual culture – university as the condition of Russian elite entering the level of a European civilization, and moreover as the element, that contributed to Europeasation of the whole country. The tragedy of Russian education can clearly be seen in the fate of Russian universities. The autocracy tried to limit the freedom of science, and Bolsheviks simply exiled the Russian professorate from the country.
In the article the results of analysis of Sanskrit word vyavahāra and its logico-epistemological functions in «Tattvopaplavasiṁha» by Jayarāśi Bhaṭṭa (VIII–IX cen.) are presented. In the text vyavahāra plays the role of the universe of discourse and universe of verification of knowledge, but the characteristics of the universe in Indian tradition only partially coincide with the characteristics of the «universe of discourse» in Western epistemology and logic. The main difference is that in the Western tradition of discourse the universe is understood as an area of certain objects, and in Indian tradition the two main meanings of vyavahāra (as daily practices and as conventional usage of words) are not restricted by the requirement of certainty of the universe of discourse.
Novel biotechnologies drastically enhance human capacities. However, initial optimism concerning new methods of therapy and body modification gradually gives way to fears that technologies can easily get out of hand and alter human nature in an undesirable way. Philosophers approach bioethical discussion from various assumptions and perspectives: while some of them believe that new technologies enhance and better human beings, others are concerned those technological innovations can be perilous. This paper overviews the discussion between utilitarians and bioconservatives on the extent to which human enhancement technologies should be permitted. I suggest an alternative communitarian approach to consider human beings primarily as members of political communities and recognition-seekers. I take the debate on doping legalization in sports to demonstrate how communitarianism doesn’t reject new technologies and still argues for making them work for preservation and flourishing of human communities. All major decisions on regulating biotechnologies should be made by communities themselves in a democratic way and drawing on bioethical expertise.
The main goal of the article is to offer and schematically elaborate the idea of performative media as a basic model of contemporary phenomenological-hermeneutical philosophy, which is aimed at exploration of the processes described in transcendental phenomenology as “constituting activities”. The performative medium embraces meaningful, spatial, and processual aspects of the human experience of the world, is able to play a part of the theoretical model offering the interesting opportunities for both further development of phenomenological project and productive dialogue between phenomenology and contemporary social sciences.
Phenomenological reduction assures the scientific standing of the phenomenological investigations. But it is also an existential situation, where philosophizing subject finds out that he is put into question. The splitting of the I generates not only “original phenomenon of the world” as well as transcendental subjectivity that constitutes it; it is also a recursive act of auto-affection which irreversibly transforms the agent.
Demonstrating uncertain broadened understanding of epistemology as common ground of phenomenology and phenomenology of religion the article criticises it to propose new more strict variants of understanding of these disciplines.
The article shows none-phenomenological quality of G. van der Leeuw’s Religionsphänomenologie and doubts thus of the quality of phenomenology in religious studies. His phenomenology is showed to be realized only as general understanding of humanities to stress the well-known cognitive ways (valuable neutrality, selection of facts, verification and hermeneutical circle) not only for knowledge but for faith, using pseudo-phenomenological knowledge as disguise. Thus Leeuw’s conception from the cognitive point of view is uncertain, it hesitates from science to theology.