Russian universities are increasingly competing for additional funding. This paper proposes a rating of scientific and practical effectivity of Russian universities, based on the account of the funding obtained through the research and development; assess the sustainability of built rating. Identified universities ranking leaders and disclosed "technological" model their success, discussed their policy of diversification of funding sources. There are typical examples of a new trend higher education market - "technologization" leading social and humanitarian universities.
The paper focuses on modernization of the Russian national innovation system under conditions of the emerging "new economy", determined by transformation of innovations, information technology and education into key factors of economic growth. Analysis of specifics of the S&T and innovation sector is provided from the viewpoint of its consistence with the requirements of the economy and society. Potential measures of its reforming are formulated, e.g. required institutional changes, reorganization of the public budget system, stimulation of technology commercialization and innovation activity.
There has been a fast rise of interest within the economic science for studying effects of noncognitive skills on individual economic behavior. Empirical analysis of this sort requires data linking individual psychological and economic variables. Psychological variables can be operationalized by using concepts of “the locus of control” and of “the big five” of personal traits. This paper presents descriptive systematization of various indicators of non-cognitive skills introduced in various waves of the RLMS HSE household survey in 2000-2016. Non-cognitive skills are analyzed in the breakdown by major socio-demographic groups and in the association with indicators of life success.
The paper aims at tracing the connection between the ideas of Keynes, Knight and Mises on uncertainty and probability. It also highlights the links between economic ideas, ethical presuppositions and practical implications these scholars drew. Both similarities and differences are found, influenced for the large part by the context of dealing with the problems under consideration.
The subject of the article is “unorthodox” gazelles — politically-connected or big business-affiliated fast-growing firms. It is established that rents play a significant role in the commercial success of such firms. Nevertheless, as predicted by the well-known “limited access framework” (by D. North and coauthors), and contrary to the standard interpretation of rents, the latter can play a positive role in the transitional economy. The authors have identified on empirical material some clearly positive scenarios among the main patterns of the development of “unorthodox” gazelles in Russia. The article discusses the conditions under which “unorthodox” gazelles can become an instrument of developmental state.
The paper provides an overview of the key issues discussed in the recent economic literature on inequality. It highlights such topics as measurement subtleties; dynamics in inequality levels; possible drivers behind inequality growth; relationship between inter- and intra-countries’ inequality; shape of long-term trends (the Kuznets hypothesis); effects of inequality on economic growth; supposed earnings stagnation in developed countries; increased remuneration gap between top-managers and other workers; growing share of capital incomes in GDP; relationship between market competition and inequality; various normative aspects. A general conclusion is that in normative terms inequality per se represents a pseudo-problem though it might be a manifestation of different fundamental economic and social problems.
We study the dynamics of inter-regional disparities for a number of characteristics of development, test the hypothesis of the new economic geography. The empirical analysis shows the spatial concentration of economic activity is continuing in Russia and the rate of inter-regional divergence, is rather high. The factors of the spatial concentration and regional disparities in Russia are population density, size and accessibility of markets, as well as the level of diversification and industry structure of the economy.
This article discusses the factors that affect the chances of a favorable resolution of claims to the WTO dispute settlement. On the basis of 488 complaints received by the WTO since the establishment of the organization by 2014, we demonstrated that the developing countries have a smaller probability of successful resolution in the dispute than the developed countries. This inequality can be explained by differences in the size of economies (GDP), but the paper shows that differences in the country’s experience of participation in WTO disputes have a higher predictive power.
Private property exists in Russia for almost 25 years. However, the legitimacy of established property rights and the legitimacy of private property as an institution remain ambiguous. Despite the change of generations and the improvement of living standards, numerous opinion polls show that the majority of Russians refers negatively not only to the privatization of the 1990s and its results, but also to private property in general. Positive forecasts on the adaptation of people to new reality do not come true. The authors analyze the reasons and consequences of private property illegitimacy and compare alternative ways of its legitimating. The main conclusion is the uselessness of any discretionary state intervention in this long-lasting process, while the focus should be put on the mitigation of inequality and the enforcement of formal institutions without any exceptions or privileges.
The article focuses on diversification and destandartization of employment in the Russian economy. The authors discuss global and objective preconditions for this process but underline a few specific features of the Russian case. The latter are due to the market transition as well as to incomplete and selective enforcement of the excessively restrictive employment protection legislation. This explains high incidence of household-based subsistence farming, underemployment, time-related overemployment, informal employment against low level of formal contracts for fixed-term or part-time employment. Using representative data the authors illustrate all major forms of non-standard employment in Russia that have evolved since 1992.
This article presents an analysis of product- and destination- variety of exports in Russian regions 2002-2010. We propose a methodology for the decomposition of export growth into intensive and extensive margins and distinguish between product- and geographic extensive margin components. The analysis allows to identify five clusters of manufacturing industries that may become the basis of non-primary export expansion in the Russian economy. The authors propose a new approach to regional groupings in Russia that synthesizes the characteristics of regions associated with the type of socio-economic development and qualitative characteristics of the export dynamics.