The condition of electoral system and electoral law is directly dependent on the actual goals of political group, that shapes the internal state policy. One of the factors defining the electoral law and the ways of its transformation is the true purpose of the parliament and its place in the system of separation of powers. Inversely, the research of electoral system transformation can lead to prognosis on effectiveness of the elected parliament. Even stand-alone changes can speak for beginning of the authority goals shifting and the political regime correction.
During 1998–2008 radical pension reforms were implemented in 14 post-communist countries. The purpose of the reforms was to shift the responsibility for pension savings from government to individuals. Essentially the same model was implemented in the countries with different social and economic conditions wither a short period of time. The implementation of the model in the region is divided into 3 stages. During the first stage (1998–1999) pension reforms were implemented in Hungary, Kazakhstan and Poland; (2000–2004) – in Bulgaria, Kosovo, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Croatia and Estonia; later (2005–2008) – in Macedonia, Romania, Slovakia and Uzbekistan. The article considers the mechanisms of diffusion of the new pension orthodoxy discourse which still defines the scope of debates on the pension system design, despite all the drawbacks of the model revealed after its implementation.
The authors investigate behavioural assumptions underlying the normal performance of market economy. It is assumed that a model of man adequate for market economy can be deduced from the ideal-typical properties of the latter. The main components of such model are rationality and morality. Main ethical categories relevant for market economy are analyzed: trust, justice, equality, virtues, freedom as well as their treatment in modern economics. Behavioural properties specifi c for modern Russian economy are discussed.
The author skeptical about the economy-centric perception of the world. Demography is used to illustrate the negative impact of such a position on the findings of specialists, very often demography is used by too narrowly by those who deal with it.
The authors analyze Russian parliamentarians’ normative notions of the political elite. The research is based on 50 interviews with the members of the State Duma. In the majority of cases respondents share similar views on the role, functions, and main features of an "ideal" political elite. Moreover, the results of the research demonstrate that parliamentarians’ normative notions and their perception of current political situation are basically the same: respondents are often of opinion that the actual political elite is normal and even near to the ideal one.
The authors analyze Russian parliamentarians' normative notions of the political elite. The research is based on 50 interviews with the members of the State Duma. In the majority of cases respondents share similar views on the role, functions, and main features of an "ideal" political elite. Moreover, the results of the research demonstrate that parliamentarians' normative notions and their perception of current political situation are basically the same: respondents are often of opinion that the actual political elite is normal and even near to the ideal one
The article analyzes Russian prisoners' views on Russia, its future and political leader. The research has been conducted by means of anonymous questionnaire poll among 100 male prisoners kept in a strict regime correctional colony for people who have already served their sentences before. The interviewed prisoners revealed critical view on political system of modern Russia and low level of loyalty to current political leaders. They tend to give negative appraisals of Russian future. In whole prisoners turned out to be more critical in their opinions than average Russians, meanwhile such critical statements as "unjust state" and "corrupted authorities" might be nothing but excuse of their own deviant behavior.
This article analyses the features of political mythology as a manifestation of the political symbolization’s process. Political symbolization is defined as the phenomenon of unconventional media reaction to the political information presented in a specific form of sign systems. The research reveals the interrelation of political myths with ideology and utopia. The analysis of political myths structure shows the main difficulty that is the ambivalent ideological myth interpretation. The article captures the main functions of political myths. The author refers to technologization and fragmentation of political myths. As a result, the myths receive widespread use, but lose their symbolic impact force. This can be found in modern myths of "conspiracy theory". The conclusion is that the fragments of myths can mimic modern forms of thinking.
The paper focuses on emergence of contemporary popular music studies in the tradition of cultural studies, stages of this new disciplinary field formation and basic controversial issues. Traditional fields in musical studies are musicology and sociology of music, each of these disciplines developed a certain view of music covering the different sides of ‘musical’, and approaches to its analysis. Nevertheless, interest in popular music phenomenon and development the academic tools of its analysis are associated primarily with cultural studies focused on the study of contemporary popular cultural forms. For a long time status of popular music researches have been disputing by ‘traditional’ disciplines, questioning their legitimacy and scientific character. Discussions about the nature of popular music initiated by new musical researchers in the 1980s had a significant impact not only on the formation of understanding popular music as a complex cultural phenomenon, but development of new field, popular music studies. Also it significantly transformed ‘traditional’ musicological disciplines. The author examines the process of popular music studies academization and its features as interdisciplinary project, which has become the basic approach for understanding, analyzing and problematization of popular music.
The author analyzes the arguments of critics of the theory of demographic transition. It is shown that the observed differences in demographic processes in different countries are not evidence of the fallacy of this theory. On the contrary, these differences fit well into the general trend of change, predicted by the theory, involving the replacement the balance of high fertility and mortality with the balance of low fertility and mortality. Such differences only show a natural diversity of demographic processes in different countries.