The article analyses the characteristics of small and medium sized enterprises and state policy towards SME in modern Russia – in the context of some rather unknown for the Russian experts evidences of last decades, formulated in the works of leading world researchers concerning the role of entrepreneurship, its conditions of development and institutional design of the state policy to promote entrepreneurial activity and innovations.
The paper describes the evolution in 1990-s and 2000-s of approaches of Russian state towards industrial policy, which is understood as a policy facilitating structural changes in the economy. The mentioned evolution took place simultaneously with the development of theoretical paradigms of industrial policy in the economic literature both in Russia and in the World, and with extensive use of different instruments of industrial policy as well. Authors aim to analyze and summarize the Russian experiences in applying different instruments of industrial policy and to discuss the reasons for success and failures of those experiments. The paper formulates some lessons to be drawn from the extensive Russian experience that may improve the efficiency of such a policy, and puts some question for the discussion on the industrial policy issue.
The current economic crisis in Russia has been caused by a combination of situational and “systemic” factors. The former group of factors includes (inter alia) a fall in international oil prices; the political revolution in Ukraine; a decrease of public trust in political power institutions in 2008- 2014; and a low quality analytical support of political decision-making process. The most important “systemic” factors are a traditional dependence of Russia on raw materials’ export and the crisis of national identity. The long-term effect of the crisis will be a narrowing of the spectrum of positions that Russia could take in the world economic and political system. Before the crisis, the spectrum of options was limited by a position of regional power (at best) and a position of emerging state/country with an uncertain status, survived in or experiencing a de jure or de facto territorial disintegration. As a result of the crisis the best possible option seems to be a position of a country at the periphery of the developed world deprived of any decisive influence on the politics of its neighbors.
This article analyzes the evolution of theoretical approaches to the role of leisure in transition to innovative economy. Assessment of the economic potential of cultural and leisure sectors is based on a comparative analysis of household demand for recreational and cultural activities, government support measures to the cultural sector, and the creative industries development in Russia, including the export-import balance. The results of the study reveal a significant gap between a high effective demand from families with new requirements for modern cultural environment and the financial state support, providing advanced development of culture and tourism in Russia, stimulating demand in the creative sector, and the development of citizens’ creative potential. Hence, this gap leads to the supply-demand imbalances, increasing outbound tourism, and a sharp interregional disparity in the creative potential development. Underdeveloped sector of creative industries and limited opportunities for creative self-expression reduce the market capacity of culture and leisure supply, and result in a negative trade balance in creative industries, and outflow of qualified youth to foreign countries.
Recent intensification of CIS countries instability has led to an intensification of migration flows in the post-soviet space. By providing multidirectional impact on the various growth factors, migration may both accelerate the development of specific countries and slow it down. The paper determines the issue of receiving higher benefit from these processes – either labor-exporting (the countries of Central Asia, Ukraine) or labor-importing countries (Russia). Using international organizations databases and the instrumental variables regression methodology we confirmed the hypothesis that in general in the long term for developing labor-exporting countries high level of labor migration constrains economic growth, although there may occur contrary situation at certain development conditions. The calculated threshold value for labor migrant remittances defines the value that inversely changes the impact of migration process on economic growth. We estimated elasticity coefficients of economic growth for certain countries of Central Asia. We defined practical recommendations to increase economic growth inclusivity of these countries by providing special economic measures, such as accelerating development of small industrial businesses and creating large numbers of new sustainable jobs.