Working memory, the brain’s ability to retain information that is not directly present in the sensory systems, underlies many higher cognitive functions. The putative neurobiological basis of working memory is the self-sustained spiking activity of neurons in the associative regions of the cortex. In addition to the firing rates, collective oscillatory activity of neural ensembles in various frequency ranges is modulated during working memory tasks. In this review, we discuss the existing experimental evidence for the possible roles of beta and gamma oscillations in implementation of working memory functions. We specifically focus on the role of these oscillations in the different phases of the experimental tasks; in particular during the presentation of the to-be-memorized stimuli and during retention of the stimuli in the working memory. We demonstrate that the various studies provide a converging evidence toward the role of the prefrontal gamma oscillations in stimulus encoding and for the prefrontal beta oscillations in working memory retention. We also discuss the reviewed data in a more general framework that implies specific roles for the beta and gamma oscillations in the organization of neural activity. The framework suggests that gamma oscillations are related to the bottom-up propagation of information, as well as to changing the states of the neuronal populations. At the same time, the beta oscillation are presumably related to top-down influences and to maintaining the status quo. Finally, we discuss the main problems of proving the causal roles for prefrontal beta and gamma oscillations in stimulus encoding and retention, as well as lacunea in our understanding of the mechanisms via which beta oscillations influence the activity of the working memory networks. We discuss the potential role of experiments with invasive and non-invasive cortical stimulation, as well as the role of computational modeling of the neural activity in solving the aforementioned difficulties.
The article discusses the role of third-party strategies in resolving interpersonal conflicts, by which we mean the participants choosing to cooperate. In the experiment, three strategies of third-party behaviour were modelled — cooperative, neutral and aggressive. The study involved 156 subjects, 95 girls and 61 boys, all 10-11 grade high school students. 18 trained research assistants played the role of the third party. The study was conducted in two series corresponding to the two experimental conditions — in a group and in dyads due to the differences in the сonflict parties’ behaviour. The essence of the experiment was to introduce a conflict situation by creating competition between the parties. This waы done as part of a game through a simulation of struggle for a limited resource, which in our study was the highest grade and depended on the solution of biological crossword. Results of the study showed that the third-party strategy did have an impact on the process of resolving interpersonal conflict. It has been proved that there are differences in the effectiveness of third-party behaviour depending on the conditions of the conflict – in a group or in a dyad. The results showed that the aggressive strategy of third party encouraged participants to cooperate in a dyad within a social group. The results can be used to create guidelines for teachers, often acting as a third party in the resolution of conflicts, and for the adolescents themselves.
The present paper focuses on the most popular form of group creativity, brainstorming. Both advantages and shortcomings of the method were examined. There are a number of factors which determine to a considerable degree the effectiveness of brainstorming. Novelty and variability of ideas exchanged, as well as the size of a brainstorming group are the most important ones. Analysis of scientific literature on this topic showed that inhibiting effects which often take place within a brainstorming session are small in dyads, but increase rapidly with group size. Face-to-face communication among members of a brainstorming group also plays an essential role in their creative performances. This role is rather controversial: face-to-face communication may either stimulate or impede individual creative activity. There are various modifications in traditional brainstorming based on mediated communication among individuals. Brainwriting and electronic brainstorming are the most popular. These methods have some advantages over traditional face-to-face brainstorming, such as a higher degree of anonymity, opportunities to contribute ideas simultaneously without waiting to articulate them, and a lower risk of the dominance of one or a few individuals. New methods of group idea generation, comprising advantages of various forms of brainstorming, tend to occur.
The study presented in this article is based on the definition of science as a cultural phenomenon, offered by T.S. Kuhn. This approach enables the treatment of psychology of personality and general personology as an open world of cultural phenomena such as productive ideas and theories, models and scientific facts, methods and practices, interpretations and communications. The genesis and potential of these phenomena can be discovered by the cultural phenomenology of the personality. Using methods of hermeneutics, modelling and building of reflexive practices which are relevant to cultural methodology of personality, the author proposes the idea of the internal dialog I —Оther as a significant intrapersonal condition in developing the self-identity of the I. In understanding self-identity its achievement is emphasized as a path where the trend of the I to preserve itself meets with challenges of unidentification with self and further identification at new levels. A structure is offered for developing dialog oriented towards the multilevel reflective opening of the I in relation to the Other from positions of the I and the internal Other. It is shown that such a dialog can enrich and strengthen the self-identity of the I through harmonization, problematization and synthesis of I-representations obtained from the above positions. The author’s idea has been developed as a continuum: hermeneutical model — theoretical model — reflective model. It addresses the task of studying and actualizing the opportunity to achieve the self-identity of the I in internal dialog.
The creativity phenomenon attracts the researchers’ attention, but the main characteristics of the creative personality have not been determined yet. In a number of studies creative person- ality is associated with such features as autonomy, enterprise, radicality, openness to experience and neuroticism (Lubart, 2000). The paper offers analysis of theories and studies devoted to the relationship between creativity, character traits and conflict behavior. Based on the review, the main research question was formulated as the need to extend data on the conflict behavior of the creative person to the sample of employees of organizations, as well as provide comprehensive analysis of the relationship between creativity, character traits and employee values. The aim of the paper is to study the relationship between creativity, values, personality traits and conflict personality behavior. Based on the concept of creativity as divergent thinking of J. Guilford (1950), a correlation study was conducted on a sample of 720 people (397 women and 323 men). Positive correlation is observed with values of independence and achievement, and negative cor- relation - with values of modesty and conformism. The connection with the Big Five factors of extraversion and openness to experience was low-level. Also, creativity is positively associated with coping strategies of decision-making, taking responsibility and distancing, and negatively - with the search for social support, avoidance and positive reassessment. The results of the study offer an empirical model of the connection between creativity, values, the Big Five factors and coping strategies. The research results can be applied in various business processes of assessment and personnel management.
The main objective of the study is the search of relationships between mood, personality traits and emotional intelligence (EI). The additional goal is acquisition of the new psychometric data on the used questionnaires. To measure mood, the Russian adaptation of the questionnaire PANAS was used, which assesses mood by the scales of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA). Personality traits were measured with the help of the Big 5 questionnaire, emotional intelligence was measured with the help of the questionnaire EmIn. Questionnaires were used on a sample of 71 subjects aged 18–49 years. Data was received about the reliability of the scales of all the used questionnaires, which in whole was satisfactory – Chronbach’s of all the scales except one lie in the range from .78 to .89. Positive correlations of some scales of the EmIn questionnaire (general EI, interpersonal EI, management of emotions) were found with the scale PA and negative correlations were found with the scale NA. Scales of interpersonal EI and understanding of emotions had only positive correlations with the scale PA. Negative correlation of neuroticism with the scale PA and positive correlation with the scale NA were found. Extraversion was positively correlated with the scale PA and had no correlations with the scale NA. In whole the acquired results correspond to the results of the similar studies, conducted in other countries. The necessity to move from one-time measurements to data collection about participants’ mood for a long period of time (the so-called experience sampling) is validated. It will allow acquiring more reliable information about emotional background, characteristic for this or that participant, and analyzing relationships between personality traits and emotional intelligence, from the one side, and dynamic characteristics of emotional states, from the other side.
The article presents the Russian adaptation of the Ambivalent Sexism Scale by P. Glick and S. Fisk. This tool measures not only hostile (a tendency to negatively appraise women that violate traditional gender roles), but also benevolent (a tendency to positively appraise women, who comply with the traditional gender roles) sexism. In the approbation of the scale, 1624 Russian citizens took part. The full version of the scale demonstrated a satisfactory fit to the empirical data, due to more covariance between the items. On the basis of the found covariance between the items, a short version was formed. The short version of the scale comprised 12 items (6 for the subscale of the hostile sexism and 6 for the subscale of the benevolent sexism), it demonstrated a good fit to the empirical data ( X = 332.147, df = 53, RMSEA = .057, CFI = .960, TLI = .950). Multigroup analysis demonstrated full structural and factorial equivalence with the use of the short version of the scale on the sample of men and women, as well as heterosexuals and people with non-heterosexual identification. Social-demographical differences were found with the use of the short version of the scale. Men and heterosexuals in a stronger degree, than women and non-heterosexuals, demonstrate hostile and benevolent sexism, people older than 30 in a stronger degree show benevolent sexism, than younger respondents. In the whole, the presented variant of the short version of the scale demonstrates good psychometric indices and can be used for further studies as a reliable and valid instrument.
Comparative analysis of network and real-life identity explores two hypotheses: 1) aspects of identity, its different parameters may have diverse profiles for the network and the reality conditions; 2) they may also indicate gender and age differences. The study is held on the sample of 42 participants, aged from 15 to 25, who were interviewed. Gender and age differences were found referring to the social identity in the network and the reality, and for superficial identity in the network condition, as well as differences for individual and relational identity in the network and the reality conditions. Variability of the factor structure was found for the network condition in comparison with the aspects of identity in reality.
Psychotherapeutic practice calls for creating conceptions of autonomy, which can be utilized in work with clients. This article focuses on the psychotherapeutic approach called 'existential analysis and logotherapy' and makes explicit its ideas regarding autonomy. Specifically, the three key theoretical underpinnings of understanding and development of one's autonomy are described. It was shown that the existential-analytical practice is guided by the notions of 'person', dialogue/relatedness and phenomenology. The structural model of autonomy on the basis of existential analysis is discussed. It is argued that, although traditionally autonomy is strongly associated with the third fundamental motivation – the motivation to 'be oneself', this position is insufficient for practice. Thus, the central argument of the paper is that, from structural perspective, the useful way to address the issue of autonomy is to consider it as the interplay of the four fundamental existential motivations, described by A. Längle. Therefore, the process of maintaining of autonomy includes four different kinds of affirmation. The person says ‘yes’ to his or her subjective reality, own feelings, uniqueness and distinctiveness, and agentive presence in others and in the world. The paper also provides illustrations from psychotherapeutic practice to justify this standpoint.
The research shows an attempt to explore the relationships of emotional intelligence and speed of emotional information processing. Following foreign researchers, who draw parallel between psychometric and emotional intelligence in relationship to speed of information processing, we assume that the basis of individual differences in emotional intelligence lies in speed of emotional information processing. 104 subjects took part in the research. For the measurement of emotional processing we used emotional Stroop task, task on emotional visual search and dot probe task. Emotional intelligence was measured with one self-report (questionnaire EmIn) and one test (videotest) method. Statistically significant correlations of emotional intelligence were found for emotional Stroop task (negative correlations with the scales “Management of emotions of others” and “Interpersonal emotional intelligence” and positive correlations with the scale “Sensitivity to orientation emotions”), as well as for the two measures of emotional visual search task (negative correlations of difference in response time in finding angry faces between joyful ones and anger against the background of neutral expression with the measures of videotest “Sensitivity to positive emotions with low activation”). By virtue of attained results, the automatic speed-up / slowdown of processing in threat detection, as well as relative velocity of identification and effectiveness of face recognition that express joy and anger may be viewed as the cognitive correlates of emotional intelligence. The lack of statistically significant relationships between emotional intelligence and other measurements is interpreted as the consequence of excessively difficult assumptions that lay in the basis of the used tasks, which hinder the revelation of the relationships in interest.
Psychological well-being is one of the key personality characteristics, whose popularity as a dependent variable has increased especially, on the one hand, with the development of the bio-psycho-social approach in medicine and the health psychology and, on the other hand, of positive psychology. In E. Diener's model, subjective well-being is determined through its three interconnected components – satisfaction as a result of cognitive appraisal of one's life, as well as positive and negative emotions as affective сcomponents. He criticizes the most widespread in the world the scale for psycho-diagnostics of emotions PANAS for its emphasize on emotions with a high level of excitation, rather than qualitative features of emotions. As an alternative, he proposed a Scale of Positive and Negative Experiences (SPANE), characterized by a greater emphasis on modality, in contrast to intensity, emotion. The aim was to validate the Russian version of the scale. 179 students of psychological specialties and 100 adult respondents filled out this scale and Satisfaction with Life Scale. The students also answered the questions of a brief version of WHOWOL and a brief version of the Quality of Life and Satisfaction Questionnaire. According to the data obtained, the scale is characterized by sufficient reliability-consistency (Cronbach alpha 0,81–0,89), test-retest reliability (r = 0,52–0,65) and factor validity. Its subscales correlate with satisfaction with life, quality of life, especially in the domains of emotions and communication, as well as coping strategies that are traditionally described as "productive", which indicates the external validity of the scale. The scale can be used for screening diagnostics of positive and negative emotions in psychological research.