The article analyzes the evolution of cross-country migration processes, as well as the present situation in this sphere. The author comes to the conclusion that a critical mass of problems has been accumulated, which can not be effectively solved in the framework of existing national regulatory regimes. In this connection, to propose the transition to inter-state institutions of migration regulation, the author offers basic directions of concrete actions aimed at their formation.
The problems of multifold increase of technological potential of developing countries are taken into account. To solve the problems, i.e. to organize effectively tapping into global knowledge and their absorption, the performance of two diffusion channels is considered. They are: open knowledge transfer channel and one of commercial knowledge transfer. Models of technological catching-up are investigated. Two of them are revealed that give an opportunity of effective use of international competition and global technology knowledge as a driver of technology development.
We investigate the relationship between the key labour market indicators: productivity, real wages, and unemployment rate. The analysis is based on quarterly data for the period Q1 1995 to Q3 2013. The period free of crises (early 1999 to mid-2008) is additionally considered to check the crisis effects. We estimate vector error correction model (VECM). Cointegration was found among the main labour market variables. The model coefficient signs fully corresponded to the economic logic, and their magnitudes were almost identical for both time spans. No significant asymmetry to positive and negative deviations from the long-term trend was revealed at the Russian labour market. The model has allowed to measure contribution of different channels to the wage growth. We find that productivity growth and decline in unemployment had similar impact on the wage change over the period under consideration. Our results explain thus the observed unusual trend of marked increase of the wage share in GDP. Contrary to standard beliefs, cross-country comparisons do not show an increased reaction of wages or weak reaction of employment to productivity or output shocks.
The Niskanen model of bureaucracy has found very limited use in Russia beyond the training courses, despite criticism aimed at the Russian government, administrative reform, and civil service reform. Meanwhile, the accumulated volume of data on the public expenditures allows us to test theoretical observations of the model empirically. The article proposes an assessment of the expenses of the institutions funded by the federal budget in 2005-2017 from the point of Niskanen's theory. The data source is the laws on the execution of the federal budget, the subject of the analysis is the ability to increase expenditures (in comparable prices) by two times relative to the initial level. It has been found that changes in expenditures are in line with the assumption that bureaus are oriented toward absorbing public surplus by increasing their own budgets. At the same time, a restriction in demand was found essential, so the possibilities for expanding the budget are not fully utilized. Thus, the potential of basic models of bureaucratic behavior can be used in practice, for evaluation of the evolution of authorities government bodies and the effectiveness of budget expenditures.
Evolution of political preferences occurs under the influence of institutions and some other factors. The term “political” was chosen just for concreteness and brevity of exposition. The results can be easily extended to some other social preferences and supporting institutions. In this model at the setup an individual joins a party but as time progresses she adjusts her endogenous political views accordingly with her utility function. Dynamics governing changes are provided by a partial differential equation similar to a diffusion equation. Party allegiance changes are random and they take the form similar to mutations in biology. The steady-state distributions on the political spectrum interval can be described by the Airy functions. Initial uniform distribution of individuals on the political spectrum interval is influenced by the governing party and the two political groups that emerge in society (“left” and “right’ political movements). Finally distribution becomes three peaked with the maximum distribution values coinciding with the formally declared political doctrines of the institutions. In the steady-state the share of the central party members will relatively increase compared with the other individuals.
Key words: evolution of preferences, political doctrine, steady-state distribution, eigenvalues problem.