The Niskanen model of bureaucracy has found very limited use in Russia beyond the training courses, despite criticism aimed at the Russian government, administrative reform, and civil service reform. Meanwhile, the accumulated volume of data on the public expenditures allows us to test theoretical observations of the model empirically. The article proposes an assessment of the expenses of the institutions funded by the federal budget in 2005-2017 from the point of Niskanen's theory. The data source is the laws on the execution of the federal budget, the subject of the analysis is the ability to increase expenditures (in comparable prices) by two times relative to the initial level. It has been found that changes in expenditures are in line with the assumption that bureaus are oriented toward absorbing public surplus by increasing their own budgets. At the same time, a restriction in demand was found essential, so the possibilities for expanding the budget are not fully utilized. Thus, the potential of basic models of bureaucratic behavior can be used in practice, for evaluation of the evolution of authorities government bodies and the effectiveness of budget expenditures.
Russian universities are increasingly competing for additional funding. This paper proposes a rating of scientific and practical effectivity of Russian universities, based on the account of the funding obtained through the research and development; assess the sustainability of built rating. Identified universities ranking leaders and disclosed "technological" model their success, discussed their policy of diversification of funding sources. There are typical examples of a new trend higher education market - "technologization" leading social and humanitarian universities.
The paper focuses on modernization of the Russian national innovation system under conditions of the emerging "new economy", determined by transformation of innovations, information technology and education into key factors of economic growth. Analysis of specifics of the S&T and innovation sector is provided from the viewpoint of its consistence with the requirements of the economy and society. Potential measures of its reforming are formulated, e.g. required institutional changes, reorganization of the public budget system, stimulation of technology commercialization and innovation activity.
There has been a fast rise of interest within the economic science for studying effects of noncognitive skills on individual economic behavior. Empirical analysis of this sort requires data linking individual psychological and economic variables. Psychological variables can be operationalized by using concepts of “the locus of control” and of “the big five” of personal traits. This paper presents descriptive systematization of various indicators of non-cognitive skills introduced in various waves of the RLMS HSE household survey in 2000-2016. Non-cognitive skills are analyzed in the breakdown by major socio-demographic groups and in the association with indicators of life success.
The paper aims at tracing the connection between the ideas of Keynes, Knight and Mises on uncertainty and probability. It also highlights the links between economic ideas, ethical presuppositions and practical implications these scholars drew. Both similarities and differences are found, influenced for the large part by the context of dealing with the problems under consideration.
The subject of the article is “unorthodox” gazelles — politically-connected or big business-affiliated fast-growing firms. It is established that rents play a significant role in the commercial success of such firms. Nevertheless, as predicted by the well-known “limited access framework” (by D. North and coauthors), and contrary to the standard interpretation of rents, the latter can play a positive role in the transitional economy. The authors have identified on empirical material some clearly positive scenarios among the main patterns of the development of “unorthodox” gazelles in Russia. The article discusses the conditions under which “unorthodox” gazelles can become an instrument of developmental state.