The paper provides a short overview of different applications of rationality principle in economics. Author argues that although in the last decades the role of rationality principle was substantially undermined in both empirical and theoretical studies. It is likely to preserve its traditional status as a basic methodological guide for economic analysis.
We examine the transformation of export (import) commodity structure for 77 countries from 2001 to 2015 and consider the links between changes in the extent of export (import) diversification and the share of intra-industry trade, accounting for countries’ size (PPP GDP) and per capita income (per capita PPP GDP). We apply Theil index to assess the extent of international trade diversification, while the share of intra-industry trade is calculated using Grubel-Lloyd index. The importance of the between and the within components of Theil index for the case of export and import concentration is compared for the first time in the literature. We find that the within component makes the largest contribution to the change in the extent of export and, especially, import diversification, while the between component is important only for a limited number of countries (oil exporters, some developed countries). Our results show that rapid changes in the share of intra-industry trade over the period were experienced only in countries with the high contribution of the within component in the Theil index. We also demonstrate that countries’ size or per capita income only partially impact the nature of structural transformation: on the one hand, export and import bundle for developing countries tends to diversify, while it is more likely to concentrate for developed countries; on the other hand, the share of the within component in the Theil index is virtually not affected by size and per capita income.
Thе author studies the reasons and consequences of major changes in methods and subjects of economic growth theory. The transformation of growth theory is going on in three main directions. Firstly, the focus of research shifts to the studies of fundamental reasons of differences in incomes per capita among countries and this shift is related with the exploration of a new class of models. Secondly, the advancement in data analysis and access to new historical data helps to test new theories and create new growth empirics. Finally, growth theory changes its focus from the analysis of balanced growth path properties to the reasons of major qualitative changes in economic dynamics. The paper shows new perspectives for the growth theory and gives forecasts of its future development.
The authors examine the processes of internal and international labor migration in Russia. Available sources of statistical information and a survey of studies allow us to define them as quantitatively comparable, but having pronounced regional differences. Despite the gravitation of both internal and international migrants to the largest cities, Russian temporary labor migrants more often go to work in the regions of the North and the East of the country. Russians and foreign migrants complement each other in the regional labor markets rather than compete. The results of the recent research conducted by Institute for Social Analysis and Prediction Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, used in the article, allow us to state that the social and economic effects of international and internal labor migration are similar. At the same time the significance of migration for the economy of households and local budgets in Russia is underestimated.
Labour resources of countries are important for their economic growth and national security. The problem of the native population decline in many countries is solved by increasing an influx of international immigrants. Russia is not an exception. The main research object of this study is the special category of immi- grants – foreign-born population. The character of integration of foreign-born pop- ulation on the Russian labour market is the main research subject in this study. For our analysis we use the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey data of 2006–2012 and apply Oaxaca–Blinder decompositions. Our findings show that integration of the foreign-born in the Russian labour market depends on their ethnicity and income level. The ethnic Russian foreign-born have similar income compared to the natives. However, income of the non-Russian ethnic foreign-born is lower than income of the natives. At the same time, the income differences between two groups decrease with their income level growth.
Experts who work on the poverty issues agree that the group of poor is very heterogeneous. Based on duration of living below the subsistence level, authors identify persistent and transitory poverty. Income of those who face persistent poverty stays below the poverty line for a long time, while those who suffer from transitory poverty have unstable situation: after overcoming poverty for some time many of them can face the problem of low income again. Different methods exist for evaluating of the level of persistent and transitory poverty on both panel and cross-sectional data. The article presents the detailed description of advantages and limitations of different approaches to persistent poverty measurement. After consideration of these approaches the analysis of persistent poverty in Russia on RLMS HSE data is performed. Taking into account the huge set of previous studies we evaluate the share of persistently poor population according to methodology adopted in European countries, the profile of persistent poverty is also described. The results are compared with already existing data about chronic poverty in Europe
We study multiregional extension of Krugman's Core-Periphery model. Comprehensive characterization of agglomeration stability
is obtained in terms of the basic parameters of model. In particular, condition of uniqueness of the stable total agglomerated equilibrium were obtained. The main feature of this paper is that the considered model is asymmetric, i.e., uneven allocation of the immobile (agricultural) population across regions is allowed. Unlike the previously known results for asymmetric CP model, which were based on numerical simulations, this research is quite analytical.
This article analyzes the ratio of funding higher education in Russia and foreign countries. It is shown, that at a similar cost structure in Russia compared to other countries, and their monetary value is three times behind the level of the OECD countries. On the basis of generalization of foreign experience of reforms in the management of the financing of higher education research identified the major trends in the financing of Russian higher education: university leaders support concentration, reliance on public higher education financing as the main source, poor use of publicprivate partnership arrangements and income from funds of the trust capital. The focus of the article is on the transition to investment financing models of education transfer management of resources based on principles of personalization, including such tools as performance based contracts, competitive funds and vouchers, based on merit, human capital contracts, as well as individual educational accounts (lifelong learning accounts) as personal investment resource. It is these mechanisms that begin to play a key role in the resource development of education.
The authors examine the relationship between the forms of ownership and wages. It uses a unique dataset that includes over 700 thousands worker observations and allows identifying narrowly defined occupations and industries. The analysis based on the estimation of the Mincerian type earnings equation shows that wage differences across the forms of different ownership are significant. Employees in foreign-owned firms have systematically higher wages than comparable workers in similar domestic owned firms. They are followed in descending order by employees in mixed (publicprivate), Russian private, federal state and regional state companies. Municipal firms pay the lowest wages. Conditioning on 3-digit occupations and economic activities narrows the gaps but the pay ranking of the forms of ownership remains unchanged.