Professional self identification is traditionally taken almost exclusively as a process of choice at the stage of graduation from secondary school. However one may argue that personal significance of choice of a university undergraduate is not less significant than the secondary school graduates' choice. An additional tension to the professional choice of the undergraduate university students is caused by its connection to the tasks of their life choices. Consequently theoretical analysis of professional self identification must address the notions and constructs which are used in sociology and psychology as indicators of reflexive and motivational constituents of selfidentification. The article presents and analyzes the results of a study of conceptions of possible of higher education undergraduates in the capital and in regional universities.
The paper discusses the principle of opposition as a way of understanding personality that is peculiar to European thought. This principle finds its conceptual foundations in dialectic phylosophy, depth psychology, and in the theory of vital relationships of personality developed by E.B. Starovoitenko. The opposition principle is considered within the context of general personology, and the possibilities of its application to state and develop new problems of personality research by means of synthesizing theory, hermeneutics, and practices of personology. The author describes the ontological, gnoseological, and reflexive phenomenological 'modes' of existence of oppositions in personality life. Results of a qualitative hermeneutic study of personality attitudes to the oppositions of life are presented. Intuitive ways of dealing with oppositions are reconstructed on the basis of European and Russian fairy-tales and described. The problem of the as a subject of attitude to oppositions in life is stated.
The article presents the result of the application of the hermeneutical, reconstruction and modelling methods in studying the problem of the multi-aspect productivity of the personality relation to Other. Based on the hermeneutical analysis and synthesis of the relevant ideas by Sergey Rubinshtein, Mikhail Bakhtin, Martin Buber, Paul Tillich, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Donald Winnicott, Jacques Lacan, for the first time the following criteria of productivity of the relation Self-Other in connection with its dialogicality are explicated: multitude of aspects of Self involved into the relation; real interaction of Self and Other, enhancing bodily capabilities of each; dialogicality of the relationship; providing for interaction «in between»; activity of Self in Other; turning of Self to self; reflexivity of Self in realization of dialogical relation to Other; multitude of others involved in Self relation to specific person; value based nature of the Self relation to Other; complex psychological nature of the relationship; revelation and coordination of the potentials of consciousness and unconsciousness in the relationship; creative activity of Self aimed at Other, self and objects in cultural context; knowledge and productive arrangement of the relationship controversies; positive changes of Self and Other in the dynamics of dialogical relation; creation and renewal of objects involved into the relationship; expansion of spectrum and improvement of quality of links of Self with numerous persons as the effect of dialogical relationship with Other; fullness of subjective living and self-development of Self in relation to Other or establishment of “dialogical Self”; creation of Self connected texts addressed to Other and others (confessions, autobiographies, narrations etc.); authorial contributions of personality to culture as those of a subject of relationship with Other.
Based on the singled out criteria there has been developed a theoretical model of productive relationship Self-Other which unites dialogical Self-positions of personality in dimensions Between-Self-and-Other, Self-in-Other, Other-in-Self, Self-in-self-with-Other. The model constitutes substantial and operational basis to create new reflexive techniques which can take the form of interview, questionnaire, self-cognition method etc. Novelty of the author’s approach is in discovery and detailed justification of the connection between productivity and dialogicality of the relationship Self-Other which is not sufficiently studied in classical psychological and philosophical papers, modern studies, practical works from such points of view as genesis, multiple approaches, constructive effects.
The article examines ideological, theoretical and methodological issues of psychological description of a normal individual. It offers a substantial interpretation of such issues. It also gives an illustration of all the difficulties of practical work in this field.
The aim of the study was to find out the extent of universality of perception of the emotional tone of information for three types of stimulus material: human behavior, music, and non-musical auditory stimuli. A distinction between two aspects of emotional tone perception was proposed: accuracy of evaluation of its modality and sensitivity to its intensity. Methods to measure these two aspects were developed for three types of stimulus material. The hypothesis was proposed that sensitivity is more universal, whereas intensity is more specific regarding the type of stimuli. Empirical evidence in support of the hypothesis was found.
We analyze the problem of the role of reflective processes in self-regulation and explain the diversity of existing opinions by introducing a model of reflective processes that differentiates their positive (systemic reflection) and negative varieties (quasi-reflection, introspection). The model was operationalized in a new instrument, 30-item Differential Test of Reflection (DTR) with scales of systemic reflection, introspection, and quasi-reflection. The paper describes 6 studies aimed at development and validation of the DTR. The structure of the instrument was established using confirmatory factor analysis in an Internet sample (N=3860) and cross-validated in a summer school participant sample (N=261). The scales demonstrate acceptable reliability (0.78 < α < 0.85); the two negative reflection scales are moderately correlated and show weak associations with the systemic reflection scale. All three reflection scales were positively associated with other existing reflection indicators. The systemic reflection scale showed weak to moderate positive correlations with measures of happiness, life satisfaction, openness to experience, emotional stability, and positive solitude. The introspection scale demonstrated moderate negative correlations with measures of happiness, life satisfaction, subjective vitality, meaning, hardiness, action orientation, and emotional stability, as well as positive ones with measures of loneliness and dependence on communication; the quasi-reflection scale showed weaker, but similar effects. In samples of large business owners and top-managers (N=21) and yoga practitioners (N=51) we found lower (d > 0.80) introspection and quasi-reflection scores, compared to the two normal samples. The results suggest that the DTR is a reliable and valid instrument for differential assessment of reflective processes.
Rapid development of modern applied psychology has resulted in the elaboration of new approaches and psychological techniques. The mediation technique is one of these new approaches originated in the USA and intensively developed in Europe, particularly in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. Modern approaches, principles and methods of mediation (published in German) are analyzed in the article. The experience of use of reflective technologies of mediation in Russian applied psychology is summarized within the context of its interaction with other humanities.