Ebina Danjo is one of the most prominent Japanese Christian thinkers of the end of the XIX – first half of the XX century, famous for his efforts to combine Christianity with the ideology of State Shinto and the belief in the sacred character of Japanese Imperial Power in the so-called Kingdom of God concept.
In its frame Ebina first proclaimed the possibility of its establishment on Earth when every individual realizes him- or herself as created by God and thus possessing a spark of divinity. The realization of this divine spark would lead a person to inner purification, self-perfection and progress, stimulating the spread of the Kingdom of God from an individual to a nation, from a nation to the whole world.
In the course of time he started to regard Japan as a nation which would play a crucial role in the foundation of the God’s Kingdom, spreading it to the world, even by means of wars and conflicts with the evil. This theory didn’t contradict the main course of Japanese politics and was willingly acquired by many young patriots of the time.
Yanagita Kunio is the most titled Japanese humanities scholar: he was posthumously awarded the Order of the Morning Sun and was awarded the 3rd senior court rank. Encyclopedic dictionaries certify Yanagita as a "scientist", the founder of Japanese ethnology. In its formation, Yanagita really played a significant organizational role, he is the author of many works, which are commonly called "ethnological". However, in the minds of the general reader, his name is associated primarily with the folklore collection Tales of Tono compiled by him (Tono Monogatari, 1910). During the life of the author, "Stories" did not gain much popularity, but subsequently turned from a peripheral text into a "visiting card" of the famous scientist. At the same time, in the creation of the all-Japanese cult of Tales from Tono, the main role was played not by scientists, but by writers.
This paper outlines the most essential aspects of Machiavelli’s religious concept and analyzes the key interpretations of it. The major ones are republicanism and straussianism. Republicanism emerged during the Enlightenment, while straussianism was developed only in the middle of XX century. Nevertheless, it should be noticed that both interpretations have origins in the Enlightenment because Leo Strauss practically renovate Machiavelli’s philosophy criticism of this time. Republicanism declares that Machiavelli is “a founder of republican humanism language”, who laid the foundations of the modern republican discourse. On the contrary, straussians blame Machiavelli for anti-religiousness and amorality, stating that Machiavelli’s philosophy became indirect cause of all modern political problem. Both research traditions try to analyze Machiavelli’s religious thought. Recently republicanism became more influential then straussianism due to works of Maurizio Viroli «Machiavelli» (1998) and «Machiavelli’s God» (2010), where he undermines the foundation of straussianism. In this paper the Viroli’s interpretation will be considered and we will try to understand, which interpretation is more developed.
Wendy HELLEMAN. Solovyov's Sophia as a Nineteenth-Century Russian Appropriation of Dante's Beatrice. Lewiston, The Edwin Mellen Press, 2010, 403