The article is mainly based upon the analysis of two Japanese texts, Jinkokuki (“Records of the people and the provinces”, 16th century) and its later revised version Shin Jinkokuki (“New records of the people and the provinces”), created by a confucianist scholar and cartographer Seki Soko in 1701. The latter is often considered to be one of the first Japanese atlases as Seki not only revised and enlarged the original text, but also added maps to the descriptions of all of the Japanese provinces. Both texts are valued by Japanese scholars as fruitful sources for studies in the history of environmental psychology, or geopsychology, and a careful study of its’ content provides some new information on the ideas and concepts of natural habitats’ influence on the formation of behavioral models and personal qualities typical to the inhabitants of certain areas within Japan in 16th-18th centuries. In the first half of the 20th century some Japanese authors, many of them playing leading roles in the introduction of western science into Japan, were obsessed with the idea of formulating typically Japanese way of thinking and behaving, that would not only differentiate the Japanese from others, but also make the nation consider itself better than those others. The search for roots of yamato-damashii and Japanese uniqueness in terms of relations between the Japanese people and the country’s nature, just as an attempt to make some certain values of the samurai class nationwide revitalized interest in Jinkokuki and Shin Jinkokuki, which were used as an instrument of state propaganda. The second part of this article analyses works by Watanabe Tooru, a psychologist who issued the first scholary publication of these texts and who’s academic career seems to be a one long road to “Records of the people and the provinces”.
The article analyzes the “ancient chapters” of The Master and Margarita from the perspective of the category of eventness, which makes possible to explicate the understanding of religious existence essentially revised by Bulgakov. The research maintains that this revision lay in the same direction as the major philosophical quests of the 20th c.; it consisted in giving up the immediate depiction of religious experience and in the attempt to demonstrate the form of the world in which a religious event takes place. The system of research approaches that the article draws upon involves philosophical concepts of M. Bakhtin, S. Kierkegaard and certain aspects of F. Dostoevsky’s literary anthropology. The discussion of the evangelical story of Zacchaeus also sheds new light on the meaningful pivots of the image of Pilate created by Bulgakov’s imagination.
The article deals with the problem of time in the context of several theories of modern physics. The traditional statements on time nature and characteristics (discreteness and continuity, fundamental nature, relativity and absoluteness, etc.) are analyzed according to historical and philosophical perspective and in relation to current physics concepts. Interpretation of arising in modern science innovative time concepts has been conducted. Attempt to clarify the possible answers to the question of what the time is in terms of the philosophy of physics has been made. In addition to the classics, the most recent research, directly or indirectly concerned to the time problem, is under consideration in the analysis. Based on the research, the conclusions according to the current state of the problem and its possible solutions have been made.
Metaphysics of Russian culture defi ned the ethical horizon of political practice in Russia. In the early twentieth century philosophers and publicists began discussions about historical guilt and political responsibility of the Russian intelligentsia, the state and the nation. Clarifying the concepts of “patriotism”, “liberalism”, “nationalism”, “freedom”, “democracy”, Russian thinkers have given a moral evaluation of the revolution. Russian intellectual class tends to follow the criterion of historical truth, thus the opposition of the liberal and patriotic discourses had a special moral sense. The basic moral question of political and intellectual struggle focused around the theme of “the fate of Russia”, its historical choice.
The author refl ects upon the book The Sources of cultural-historical psychology: philosophical-humanitarian context by V. Zinchenko, B. Pruzhinin, T. Schedrina. Moscow, 2010.
Ebina Danjo is one of the most prominent Japanese Christian thinkers of the end of the XIX – first half of the XX century, famous for his efforts to combine Christianity with the ideology of State Shinto and the belief in the sacred character of Japanese Imperial Power in the so-called Kingdom of God concept.
In its frame Ebina first proclaimed the possibility of its establishment on Earth when every individual realizes him- or herself as created by God and thus possessing a spark of divinity. The realization of this divine spark would lead a person to inner purification, self-perfection and progress, stimulating the spread of the Kingdom of God from an individual to a nation, from a nation to the whole world.
In the course of time he started to regard Japan as a nation which would play a crucial role in the foundation of the God’s Kingdom, spreading it to the world, even by means of wars and conflicts with the evil. This theory didn’t contradict the main course of Japanese politics and was willingly acquired by many young patriots of the time.
Yanagita Kunio is the most titled Japanese humanities scholar: he was posthumously awarded the Order of the Morning Sun and was awarded the 3rd senior court rank. Encyclopedic dictionaries certify Yanagita as a "scientist", the founder of Japanese ethnology. In its formation, Yanagita really played a significant organizational role, he is the author of many works, which are commonly called "ethnological". However, in the minds of the general reader, his name is associated primarily with the folklore collection Tales of Tono compiled by him (Tono Monogatari, 1910). During the life of the author, "Stories" did not gain much popularity, but subsequently turned from a peripheral text into a "visiting card" of the famous scientist. At the same time, in the creation of the all-Japanese cult of Tales from Tono, the main role was played not by scientists, but by writers.
This paper outlines the most essential aspects of Machiavelli’s religious concept and analyzes the key interpretations of it. The major ones are republicanism and straussianism. Republicanism emerged during the Enlightenment, while straussianism was developed only in the middle of XX century. Nevertheless, it should be noticed that both interpretations have origins in the Enlightenment because Leo Strauss practically renovate Machiavelli’s philosophy criticism of this time. Republicanism declares that Machiavelli is “a founder of republican humanism language”, who laid the foundations of the modern republican discourse. On the contrary, straussians blame Machiavelli for anti-religiousness and amorality, stating that Machiavelli’s philosophy became indirect cause of all modern political problem. Both research traditions try to analyze Machiavelli’s religious thought. Recently republicanism became more influential then straussianism due to works of Maurizio Viroli «Machiavelli» (1998) and «Machiavelli’s God» (2010), where he undermines the foundation of straussianism. In this paper the Viroli’s interpretation will be considered and we will try to understand, which interpretation is more developed.