The article aims to refine the understanding of the importance of industries as consumers and producers of intermediate products (compared with the results based on the data from World Input-Output Tables for Russia) and calculate the effect of trade integration on production and some other economic indicators by economic activities relying on the input-output analysis for the case of Russian integration into the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU). We apply the new official input-output tables published in March, 2017. We show that the structure of the gains from economic integration changes while one switches from the analysis in terms of commodity trade growth to the analysis in terms of value added: the gains reduce for chemicals and machinery (though these industries are still in the top) and increase for services and intermediate products (especially mining).
The article is devoted to the problems of relationship between the public expenditures and the economic growth and methodical and practical problems of estimating expenditures efficiency. Authors note that “productive expenditures” (expenditures on human capital, social and economic infrastructure, research and development) have strong influence on the economic growth. The comparative study of the effectiveness and efficiency of the public expenditures was conducted, including the productive expenditures (education and healthcare), for Russia and the sample of countries close to Russia by their economic development level. The aggregated indicators of the effectiveness and efficiency, simple econometric models, DEA method, and based on them effectiveness and efficiency rankings are used as measuring instruments in the study.
According to the approach applied in the study, the rankings show relatively poor results for Russia in macroeconomic function performance of the public sector, in comparison to the other countries of the sample, but it is worth to notice that the aggregated estimates are influenced by the selection of time period. Russia shows high results in education public expenditures efficiency and relatively poor results in healthcare public expenditures efficiency. Also, the productive expenditures level is low in Russia compared to the other countries close to Russia by the economic development level and OECD countries. This can limit the economic growth in the mid-term and long-term prospects.
Using level accounting methodology this article examines sources of per capita GDP and labor productivity differences between Russia and developed and developing countries. Analysis concentrates on the assessment of role of the following determinants in per capita GDP gap: per hour labor productivity, number of hours worked per worker and labor-population ratio. It is shown that labor productivity difference is the main reason of Russia`s lagging behind. Factors of Russia`s low labor productivity are then estimated. It is found that 33-39% of 2.5-5-times labor productivity gap (estimated for non-oil sector) between Russia and developed countries (US, Canada, Germany, Norway) is explained by lower capital-to-labor ratio and the latter 58-65% of gap is due to lower technological level (multifactor productivity). Human capital level in Russia is almost the same as in developed countries, so it explains only 2-4% of labor productivity gap.
The article analyzes the evolution of cross-country migration processes, as well as the present situation in this sphere. The author comes to the conclusion that a critical mass of problems has been accumulated, which can not be effectively solved in the framework of existing national regulatory regimes. In this connection, to propose the transition to inter-state institutions of migration regulation, the author offers basic directions of concrete actions aimed at their formation.
The problems of multifold increase of technological potential of developing countries are taken into account. To solve the problems, i.e. to organize effectively tapping into global knowledge and their absorption, the performance of two diffusion channels is considered. They are: open knowledge transfer channel and one of commercial knowledge transfer. Models of technological catching-up are investigated. Two of them are revealed that give an opportunity of effective use of international competition and global technology knowledge as a driver of technology development.
We investigate the relationship between the key labour market indicators: productivity, real wages, and unemployment rate. The analysis is based on quarterly data for the period Q1 1995 to Q3 2013. The period free of crises (early 1999 to mid-2008) is additionally considered to check the crisis effects. We estimate vector error correction model (VECM). Cointegration was found among the main labour market variables. The model coefficient signs fully corresponded to the economic logic, and their magnitudes were almost identical for both time spans. No significant asymmetry to positive and negative deviations from the long-term trend was revealed at the Russian labour market. The model has allowed to measure contribution of different channels to the wage growth. We find that productivity growth and decline in unemployment had similar impact on the wage change over the period under consideration. Our results explain thus the observed unusual trend of marked increase of the wage share in GDP. Contrary to standard beliefs, cross-country comparisons do not show an increased reaction of wages or weak reaction of employment to productivity or output shocks.