We consider the problems of measuring the temperature of objects heated in high-power microwave installations and show the advantages of using pyrometers for these purposes as compared with thermocouple temperature meters. The procedure of finding the characteristics of below-cutoff waveguides with circular cross sections intended for application in combination with pyrometric sensors is described. We also present the plots for the rapid evaluation of the geometric parameters of circular below-cutoff waveguides depending on the required inserted attenuation. An example of application of a circular below-cutoff waveguide in combination with a KM-1 pyrometer is presented.
We propose a method for designing transversely illuminated traveling-wave microwave devices. Devices of this type produce a uniform 3D temperature distribution in a polymer-composite rod. We describe theoretical and experimental results from studies of the 3D temperature distribution in the rod, along with the advantages of microwave curing technology over traditional curing techniques for polymer composites.
The primary purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of existing education solutions for IoT and develop proposals for their improvement. The study draws analysis of current conditions of the educational IoT sphere, a comparative analysis of educational products used for teaching of undergraduate students. With that the article describes the architecture of our own software and hardware platform for learning IOT. Moreover, this paper reviews methods and technical instruments employed to design software and hardware appliances.
Siberian Conference on Control and Communications SIBCON
Modern transport systems are characterized by the development and implementation of intelligent transport technologies. Today, dynamic forecast models are not used in practice in the operation of a passenger terminal. Decision making is based on some regulatory values for passenger traffic, but this is not sufficient for efficient terminal management. Modern passenger terminals are characterized by dynamic process variability and consideration of diverse options, taking into account the criteria of safety, reliability analysis, and the continuous research of passenger processing. For any modern marine passenger terminal, it is necessary to use the tool to simulate passenger flows in dynamics. Only in this way it is possible to obtain the analytical information and use it for decision making when solving the problem of the amount of personnel required for passenger service, transport safety, some forecasting tasks and so on. Of particular relevance is the choice of the mathematical transport model and the practical conditions for the implementation of the model in the real terminal operation. In this article, the analysis technique of intelligent simulation-based terminal services provides a new mathematical model of passenger movement inside the terminal and presents a new software instrument. Moreover, the conditions of implementation of some transportation models during the operation of marine passenger terminal are examined. The study represents an example of analytical information used for the forecast of the terminal operations, the analysis of the workload and the efficiency of the organization of the marine terminal.
We discuss the effect of self-heating on performance of injection microdisk lasers operating in continuous-wave (CW) regime at room and elevated temperature. A model is developed that allows one to obtain analytical expressions for the peak optical power limited by the thermal rollover effect, the corresponding injection current and excess temperature of the device. The model predicts, there exists the maximum temperature of microlaser operation in CW regime and the minimum mircrodisk diameter, at which CW lasing is possible. The model allows one to determine the dependence of the device characteristics on its diameter and the inherent parameters, such as thermal resistance, electrical resistance, non-radiative recombination and characteristic temperature of the threshold current. It is found that a rapid growth of the threshold current density with decreasing the diameter (which takes place even in the absence of the self-heating effect) is the main internal reason leading to the dependence of the temperature characteristics of the mirodisk laser on its size. In the calculations, we used a set of parameters extracted from experiments with InGaAs quantum dot microdisk lasers. The simulation results (in particular, the light-current curve and the dependence of the minimum microdisk diameter on ambient temperature) comply well with the measured dependences.
Modern processes in the world economy directly affect the development and changes in sea passenger ports and their infrastructure. The principles of organization of the “city-sea passenger port” system are changing and becoming more complex. Recently there has been a significant increase in passenger traffic and cruise ship and ferry traffic in Baltic Sea. Since these objects are complex technical systems consisting of many elements, in their study it is necessary to use the system approach, to solve the problem of structure synthesis and the determination of objective functions. The objective of this publication was to study how the forecast for the development of demand for sea passenger ports (number cruise ships and passengers flow for next year) could be done by combining simulation and forecast functions. These tasks depend on the qualitative construction of specialized information simulation models. Such subsystems should be used by passenger port management for both operational everyday tasks and strategic tasks. One of the main goals of the forecast is the qualitative construction of an analytical function work of the terminal that determines the passenger flow based on real data. The article considers the solution of this problem by using the method of average growth rate and polynomial extrapolation. In the article, the characteristics and infrastructural features of the passenger ports of St. Petersburg are given, and the main directions of development based on the results of simulation are considered. The paper discusses advantages of using such forecast and their introduction in the early stages of operation of the terminal. The study represents an example of analytical information used for the forecast of the terminal load, the analysis of the workload and efficiency of the organization of the marine terminal in operational tasks using analytical function based on real data
The purpose of the article is to present an analytical system that allows users to process data necessary for an industrial risk analysis and management, to monitor the level of industrial safety in a given site, and to fulfil essential tasks within the field of occupational safety. This system’s implementation will make the industrial safety management at industrial sites more effective. Multifactorial, probabilistic, determined models of accidents’ hazard and severity indexes are integrated into the computing core of the Information and Analytical System. Then, statistical methods determine the risk assessment of occupational injuries and diseases. The Information and Analytical System for Hazard Level Assessment and Forecasting Risk of Emergencies in the Republic of Kazakhstan allows users to work efficiently with large volumes of information and form a united analytical electronic report about the state of industrial safety. The main objective of the monitoring system is to conduct a comprehensive analysis and assessment of the state of accidents, traumas and occupational sickness rates at industrial sites, the results being classified by the degree of hazard and insalubrity of manufacture. The introduction of the computer monitoring system in the specialized services of the Emergency Management Committee and the Ministry of Investment and Development of the Republic of Kazakhstan, and at industrial enterprises throughout the country, will allow users to analyse the state of the industrial and occupational safety constantly and objectively; as a consequence, the implementation will go a long way towards comprehensively approaching the task of increasing safety levels at industrial sites.
Distinguishing outliers from normal data in wireless sensor networks has been a big challenge in the anomaly detection domain, mostly due to the nature of the anomalies, such as software or hardware failures, reading errors or malicious attacks, just to name a few. In this article, we introduce an anomaly detection-based OPF classifier in the aforementioned context. The results are compared against one-class support vector machines and multivariate Gaussian distribution. Additionally, we also propose to employ meta-heuristic optimization techniques to finetune the OPF classifier in the context of anomaly detection in wireless sensor networks.
The problem regarding the use of machine learning in cybersecurity is difficult to solve because the advances in the field offer many opportunities that it is challenging to find exceptional and beneficial use cases for implementation and decision making. Moreover, such technologies can be used by intruders to attack computer systems. The goal of this paper to explore machine learning usage in cybersecurity and cyberattack and provide a model of machine learning-powered attack.
Modern passenger terminals are characterized by dynamic processes variability, diverse options consideration, taking into account the criteria of safety, reliability analysis and the continuous research of passenger processing. For any modern marine passenger terminal it is necessary to use the tool to simulate passenger flows. In this way it is possible to obtain the analytical information and use it for decision-making when solving the problem of the amount of personnel required for passenger services.in line with the original ship arrival schedule, to solve problems of forecasting groups at the terminal. Of particular relevance is the choice of the mathematical transport model and the practical conditions for the implementation of the model in the real terminal operation. In this article the analysis technique of simulation-based terminal services, provides a mathematical model of passenger movement inside the terminal. Also, the conditions of implementation of the transportation model during the operation of marine passenger terminal are examined. The object of the research is the marine Passenger Port of St. Petersburg “Marine Facade”. The paper discusses advantages of using such systems and their introduction in the early stages of operation of the terminal. In addition, the conclusion about the effectiveness of such systems for the analysis of the correctness of internal space of the marine terminal. The study represents an example of analytical information used for the forecast of the terminal operations, the analysis of the workload and efficiency of the organization of the marine terminal.
We present the simple microprobe for the investigation of crude oil by a thermal desorption photoionization coupled to Orbitrap mass spectrometry. The droplet of crude oil was placed on the heating element with controllable temperature. The temperature was linearly increased, and crude oil vapors were ionized by a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) lamp and detected by Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Use of modified Orbitrap allowed introduction of the heating element and VUV lamp directly into the ion funnel and performing experiment not only at atmosphere pressure but also at 20, 10, and 5 torr. We observed that at high pressure protonated CHN compounds dominate in the spectrum, while at the low pressure CH compounds dominate. Similar to previously reported thermogravimetry coupled to photoionization or chemical ionization mass spectrometry systems we were able to separate compounds with different desorption energy and reliably detect low-abundant compounds. Also, we were able to determine the desorption temperature for each compound of the crude oil. We found that temperature of desorption increases linearly with m/z for compounds that belong to the same homology series (same Kendrick mass defect). This may serve as indirect evidence that such compounds differ only by the length of aliphatic chains attached to some basic structure.
The paper refers to the area of morphological processing of projection images and its goal is to design some computer models of basic operations, geometric properties and methods of pulsed optical tomography which provide a high-speed production operational control and sorting of each micro-objet (MO) of nuclear fuel in their flow according to their size and shape: image approximation of a three-dimensional MO and spatial geometric properties of its size and shape; generation operations of the pulsed discrete projection images of an MO and determination of the representative number and optimal view of images; operations of numerical determination of the optimal basic properties of each projection image; methods of dynamic reconstruction of spatial geometric properties of an MO based on the basic properties of its discrete projection images. Based on the proposed computer models, a precision laser method of industrial differential control and quality control of MO flow of nuclear fuel was developed and experimentally tested. The method uses the statistical reconstruction of the size (D) and shape (K) of each micro-object and take into account the overall dimensions of the outlines of three mutually orthogonal two-dimensional pulsed discrete projection images of a micro-object. The processing speed of this method is 100 MO/s in the diameter range of 400 – 1500 mkm. The relative error of an MO diameter control is no more than 0.25% (at the reliability of PD = 0.7 and K = 1.3 relative units), and the relative error of the non-sphericity coefficient control lies in the range of 2.3% (PK = 0.7 and K = 1.3 relative units) to 0.6% (PK = 0.96 and K = 1.05 relative units).
The paper considers programs and devices of augmented reality, examines the general environments and methods of software development and the rationale for their selection. The work describes in detail the operating principle of the software, the pattern recognition algorithm, the UML class diagram, the UML usage diagram, and the architecture of the 3D rendering engine and a description of its operation. An example of practical application of software with pattern recognition is offered. The paper examines the impact of virtual reality on human health, as well as the problem of assimilation of educational material in preschool education. To solve the problem, various algorithms for the program are proposed. Based on the conducted studies, it was decided to create the software for the experiment on the basis of developed algorithms for preschool education. The results of the work can be used for further research in the field of expanded reality, for new developments in this field and improvement of the quality of education.
In this paper, a problem of robust anisotropy-based control with regional pole assignment for descriptor systems with norm-bounded parametric uncertainties is concerned. The goal is to find a state-feedback control law, which guarantees desirable disturbance attenuation level from stochastic input with unknown covariance to controllable output of the closed-loop system, and ensures, that all finite eigenvalues of the closed-loop system belong to the given region inside the unit disk for all uncertainties from the given set.
A strip-loaded horizontal slot waveguide is used for routing the emission of a microdisk laser. The active region of the laser is InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots operating in continuous wave mode under optical pumping. Although the quantum dots emit in a broad range, the laser emission is single-mode with λ = 1290 nm. Atomic layer deposition is used for the fabrication of the TiO₂/SiO₂/TiO₂ slot waveguide covering the 10-μm-diameter disk. The horizontal slot waveguide covers the microdisk and traps the emission into the fundamental TM mode of the three-stack layer. Once light is localized inside this planar waveguide, a loading-strip creates an effective index difference, which is sufficient to confine the mode laterally and leads to the guiding of the lasing emission. An analytical model for the 5-layers horizontal planar slot waveguide was developed in order to optimize the slot waveguide according to the operation wavelength of the microlaser and the different materials involve. Scanning near-field optical microscopy is used to observe propagation of light within the waveguide and confirm the mode coupling into it and therefore the guiding along the loading strip. The device being inherently low loss, this first demonstration of a microdisk laser with a horizontal slot waveguide opens a path towards challenging application such as quantum computing integrated chips.
Automatic control systems (ACSs) for rolling stock should provide desired control quality under all modes of motion (traction, speed stabilization, braking). The structure of an adaptive automatic control system, as well as the methodology of choosing its parameters, the implementation of which makes it possible to achieve the desired control quality in a wide range of speeds and weights of trains, is proposed. In addition, the parameters of the ACS should be changed during changes of modes and train weight.
Superplastic Forming is an industrial process to produce thin-walled products of complex shape. At the same time this process allows one to obtain the products with close to uniform thickness distribution. The process exploits the abilities of some polycrystalline materials to large elongations before failure. The best formability can be achieved only under very specific conditions of temperature and strain rate. In order to calculate the pressure regime to sustain target strain rate in critical arias it is necessary to use finite element simulation. The pressure regime calculation lasts for a day’s especially while 3 dimensional elements are use. To reduce the time of calculation it is possible to use elements from membrane theory. The main idea of this approach is to use planar elements instead of tetrahedronal for 3D tasks or 2 nodes elements instead of triangular ones for axisymmetric tasks. This reduction doesn’t take in account share stress accruing into material. The main aim of this paper is to study the effect of elements type on the accuracy of thickness distribution prognosis.
The use of the MRI-navigation system ensures accurate targeting of TMS. This, in turn, results in TMS motor mapping becoming a routinely used procedure in neuroscience and neurosurgery. However, currently, there is no standardized methodology for assessment of TMS motor-mapping results. Therefore, we developed TMSmap – free standalone graphical interface software for the quantitative analysis of the TMS motor mapping results (http://tmsmap.ru/). In addition to the estimation of standard parameters (such as the size of cortical muscle representation and the center of gravity location), it allows estimation of the volume of cortical representations, excitability profile of the cortical surface map and the overlap between cortical representations. The input data for the software includes the coordinates of the coil position (or electric field maximum) and the corresponding response in each stimulation point. TMSmap has been developed for versatile assessment and comparison of TMS maps relating to different experimental interventions including, but not limited to longitudinal, pharmacological and clinical studies (e.g., stroke recovery). To illustrate the use of TMSmap we provide examples of the actual TMS motor-mapping analysis of two healthy subjects and one chronic stroke patient.
Introduction. The gained experience in the field of building automation and IoT technologies yields a new approach to the management of engineering subsystems that provides stated parameters of operation quality throughout the entire building lifecycle. This paper explores compensatory and predictive algorithms in the scope of the aforementioned approach to manifest control over building climate parameters utilizing IoT controllers. This research aims to improve the management efficiency of smart house engineering subsystems through the implementation of a control system (CS) capable to compensate disturbances and predict their variations using an IoT controller and an analytical server.
Materials and methods. In order to improve the quality of control, various algorithms based on analysis of data collected from controllers can be employed. The collected data about the object accumulated over the entire period of operation can be used to build a model for the purposes of predictive control. The predictive control allows forecasting the parameters having an effect on the object and compensating it beforehand under the inertia conditions. The continuous adaptation and adjustment of the CS model to operating conditions allows permanent optimizing the settings of the control algorithm ensuring the efficient operation of local control loops.
Results. The CS is based on an IoT controller and able to predict and compensate potential disturbances. The compensation algorithm is updated depending on the behavior of the object properties, quality of control and availability of data most suitable for identification.
Conclusions. The capabilities of the control system based on the IoT controller and generation of a compensatory and predictive control signal with the algorithm hosted at a cloud server are demonstrated on the indoor temperature control model. The following simulation models of the indoor temperature variation process are considered: model without CS, model with proportional plus integral controller with disturbance compensation and model with IoT controller-based CS with disturbance compensation. Structural and parametric identification of the models are accomplished by means of active experiment.