Globalization is characterized not only by economic growth and prosperity but also by increasing pressure on natural resources, unsustainable patterns of consumption and production and increasing inequality. To study these global challenges and their impact on development processes authors identified modern trends in the field of bioeconomy and biotechnology developments, analyzed the main government programs, strategies, funds and statistical information from open sources. The basic principles of bioeconomy methods in agro, food and food security in European countries and in Russian Federation were determined and Genetic engineered organisms statistic, policy and public attitudes from open sources in Russia and European countries were compared
The article reflects undertaken worldwide steps to build the bioeconomy. Bioeconomy is a set of industries, from the point of view of economy, and a plurality of cross-industry research, in terms of global science. All this leads to difficulty in understanding the boundaries of bioeconomy, developing within the traditional economies. The article also presents the main instruments of support and development of biotechnology and bioeconomy in Russia, such as the National Technology Initiative (NTI), the Federal Targeted Programme for Research and Development in Priority Areas of Advancement of the Russian Scientific and Technological Complex for 2014-2020 (action 2.2). The influence of the international scientific and technological programs (Horizon 2020, ERA-NET) on the regional economy was also estimated.
We model the evolution of a trans-boundary marine fishery, which is based on the harvesting of a single “highly-migratory” stock and is beginning to be impacted by regional oceanic-climate changes. The fish-stock’s range will be composed of a number of jurisdictional zones: namely, its intersection with the EEZ of each coastal country for which that intersection is non-trivial. There may also be a zone within international waters of the high seas. We also assume that management of the fishery is vested in a Regional Fishery Management Organization, whose members are countries that are “direct stakeholders” in the fishery—being either one of the above countries with jurisdictional authority in a zone or a country that has registered fishing vessels that are licensed to harvest in the fishery, or both.
The paper discusses the techniques which are currently implemented for vaccine production based on virus-like particles (VLPs). The factors which determine the characteristics of VLP monomers assembly are provided in detail. Analysis of the literature demonstrates that the development of the techniques of VLP production and immobilization of target antigens on their surface have led to the development of universal platforms which make it possible for virtually any known antigen to be exposed on the particle surface in a highly concentrated form. As a result, the focus of attention has shifted from the approaches to VLP production to the development of a precise interface between the organism’s immune system and the peptides inducing a strong immune response to pathogens or the organism’s own pathological cells. Immunome-specified techniques for vaccine design and the prospects of immunoprophylaxis are discussed. Certain examples of vaccines against viral diseases and cancers are considered.
Hypoxia of trophoblast cells is an important regulating factor in the process of normal placenta development. However, the effect of hypoxia on the placenta in a number of pathological conditions, such as preeclampsia, leads to impaired cellular functions. A oxyquinoline derivative is capable of inhibiting HIF-prolyl hydroxylases, thereby stabilizing the transcription complex of HIF-1 and activating the cell response to hypoxia. BeWo b30 human choriocarcinoma cells are used to model trophoblast, which forms the basis for placenta barrier. Oxyquinoline effect leads both to an increased expression of a number of the genes that form the core response to hypoxia, and upregulated expression of NOS3, PDK1, and BNIP3 genes and downregulated expression of the PPARGC1B gene. This indicates the activation of mechanisms of metabolic cell reprogramming aimed at reducing oxygen consumption by reducing the number of mitochondria and switching from aerobic glucose metabolism to anaerobic. Possible applications of the obtained results is under discussion.