This paper studies the influence of diversification and specialization on one of the main indicators of the Russian labour market: unemployment growth. The purpose of the work is to find out which effects dominate in the Russian regions, Marshallian or Jacobs, and whether this predominance is stable for different time periods. We tested empirically the following hypotheses: 1) the dependence of the unemployment growth on the concentration or diversification is nonlinear due to possible overlapping effects of urbanization and localization; 2) the influence of the concentration or diversification on the unemployment growth depends on the time period. To test these hypotheses, we use nonparametric additive models with spatial effects. Both hypotheses found empirical confirmation, with each effect prevailing in different time periods: Marshallian effects were prevalent in 2008-2010, and 2013-2016, while Jacobs effects were prevalent in 2010-2013.
Service innovation was neglected for a long time, but by the first years of this century it was clear that some maturity had been reached. Innovation in the public sector has been even more neglected in the mainstream of innovation studies. This paper explores the scope for fruitful integration of work on this topic into innovation studies more generally. It examines four different theoretical perspectives used in studies of service innovation: assimilation, demarcation, inversion and integration/synthesis. Each of these throws light on particular issues confronting public services innovation, and we see that innovation in this sphere is highly diverse and that it does often display special features. But we conclude that these features do not constitute a strong case for studying public service innovation as if it were something sui generis, let alone continuing to neglect it. Instead, the case is made for developing more integrative views of innovation.
This study examines the determinants of economic size of a nation measured as its share in world GDP, in comparison with the conventional determinants of per capita income growth. These two indicators are complementary. The former represents the economic size (power) of a nation, whereas the latter stands for people’s standard of living. This paper first proves that the determinants of these two different aspects of economic growth are different. It then goes on to verify the followings. First, the determinants of the GDP share of each nation are the variables that represent the share of each nation in the world, such as shares in world population, investment, human capital, exports, R&D investment, and financial capital flows. Second, currency undervaluation promotes per capita GDP growth via increasing exports, but tends to reduce a country’s share in world GDP because undervaluation depreciates its GDP at market exchange rate, whereas its indirect effect through export share changes is uncertain due to the zero sum nature of competitive undervaluation among nations. Third, trades are important in world GDP share determination as long as it is measured by share in world exports which represent economic rivalry among nations. The study conducts conventional country-panel econometric analyses after it proposes some theoretical basis for such empirics.