Tourism associated with visits to pristine natural areas for studying, visual enjoying by landscapes, animals, wild plants and the general natural heritage located in these areas, is gaining popularity. The natural tourism, including the desert kind of tourism, involves those activities that directly deal with natural resources and attractions. A large part of Iran’s territory is desert and the formation of the tourist complex is becoming an important direction of socioeconomic development. The objective of the article is to assess potential located in the province of Isfahan (Iran) deserts from the point of view of tourism development. The study used the descriptive-comparative method and method of point scoring. The article shows that deserts of Maranjab, Mesr and Dagh Sorkh received the highest rating of tourist attractiveness. October is the ideal month to visit the deserts of Maranjab and Mesr. Given the availability level of tourist infrastructure, the desert of Mesr ranked the first place in terms of tourist attractiveness. For further development of tourism in the analyzed territories, the investments to improve transport infrastructure and create service centers are necessary. The results of the study showed that the most favorable conditions for the development of desert tourism have territories of Abbas Abad, Matin Abad, Mesr, Farahzad, Hosain Abad, Abuzaid Abad and the cities of Khaled Abad and Badrud.
Housing construction in Moscow agglomeration is a key mechanism stimulating migration inflow because it forms a downward pressure on housing prices, which are the most important barrier for migration. Positive feedback between extensive way of development of the Moscow agglomeration and migration inflow into the capital region stimulates hyperconcentration of the population and economic activity. Theoretical analysis shows that there is equilibrium between housing construction and migration inflow to the Moscow region. According to our estimates, in the 2000-s the relation of migration inflow to housing construction volume (capability of the Moscow agglomeration to accumulate migration) has halved in comparison to the 1990s. Mathematical modeling and empirical data show that this shift was determined by the increase in natural rent distributed in Russia and in agglomeration economies in other major cities of the country. Especially favorable for migration inflow is oil-spot-style extensive way of development of the agglomeration due to the dominance of large greenfield projects of affordable housing in the 30-km zone outside the Moscow Ring Road in housing construction. It is shown that the development of this zone is a key regulator of the migration balance at the national level. Extensive way of development is subsidized by the government through multiple channels, primarily investments in transport infrastructure, what contradicts official goals of the regional policy and the government efforts to mitigate interregional inequality through the fiscal redistribution.
Intraregional migration in modern Russia plays a crucial role in the implementation of people’s life plans. It also contributes to spatial configuration changes. Every second registered resettlement within Russia occurs within the borders of the regions. However, nothing is known about intraregional migration, except for its total volume and role in changing the population of individual municipalities. The statistical information collected by the authors on long-term intraregional migration for 1265 municipalities in 39 regions of Russia (51.4% of the country’s population) for 2017 made it possible to generate arrival, departure, and net migration matrices for each region. This made it possible to analyze the intraregional migration flows and intraregional redistribution of the population between regional centers, suburban municipalities, and regional periphery. The analysis revealed that the population movement between regional centers, their suburbs and other municipalities in all intraregional migration approximately corresponds to their share in the population. All types of municipalities are equally involved in migration. There is an intensive migration exchange between regional centers and their suburbs. Regional centers are not only inferior to the suburbs in terms of the intensity of migration growth: 80% of regional centers lose their population in the migration exchange with their own suburbs. In general, the redistribution of the population within the framework of intraregional migration in almost all the studied regions contributes to an increase in the concentration of the population in the agglomeration zone formed by regional centers and their suburbs. In some regions, there is another “zone” of population concentration, as a rule, much smaller: the sub-centers represented by large cities located at a considerable distance from regional centers. They form their own zones of positive net migration with the nearest peripheral municipalities. In most cases, this migration allows sub-centers to only compensate for the migration outflow to other regions of the country or to their own regional centers.
The article is dedicated to the memory of the outstanding scientist, patriarch of Russian geo-urban studies G.M. Lappo (1923–2020), who made a huge contribution to the study of the problems of settlement, the development of domestic geography of cities and socio-economic geography in general. The main stages of the scientific biography of the scientist are highlighted and characterized. For the first time a list of the main publications of G.M. Lappo for the entire period of research activities from 1956 to 2019. Changes in the problem field and territorial coverage of scientific works at different stages are traced. Particular attention is paid to books (scientific monographs) prepared by G.M. Lappo, and their role in the development of Soviet and Russian geo-urban studies. The special significance of the developed by G.M. Lappo of the concept of the settlement support frame for the development of domestic socio-economic geography.
Comprehensive geochemical studies of the natural and technogenic landscapes of the Kursk region in the area of iron ore development have been carried out. The levels of contamination by heavy metals of soils, bottom sediments and surface waters in the zones of influence of the objects of the Mikhailovsky mining and processing plant, including the territory of Zheleznogorsk, were revealed. The greatest technogenic changes are experienced by soils of trans-accumulative landscapes, bottom sediments and waters of aquatic landscapes of the Pesochnaya, Chern, and Rechitsa rivers. The content of Co, Ni, Pb, Zn in soils corresponds to the minimum, Cu, Mn and Cr in some cases - to low and medium levels of pollution. Increased concentrations of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Cr, Pb) in the waters and bottom sediments of rivers are caused by the impact of the tailing dump, quarry, dumps and city runoff. In the aquatic landscapes of the rivers, there is a high content of soluble forms of Fe, which exceeds the MPC for fishery facilities by tens of times, which is partly explained by the geochemical features of landscape complexes and surface watercourses in the studied area.
On the basis of the fi rst results of Russia's 2010 population census, the population dynamics of Russia's regions for the 2002--2010 period is described and discrepancies between the census data and the results of the current count of the population for the recent intercensus period are analyzed. The results of the census are critically considered with allowance for problems in its operation in such regions as the North Caucasus republics, Moscow, and certain other regions; the incorrectness of the 2002 census data on the population size in certain regions is argued. Population migration between particular macroregions is estimated based on the net balance of the population from the results of the 2010 census.
The article analyses the dynamics of the population of 75 regional centers and second by population size cities of the regions in Russia. The analysis is based on the population census data from 1959 to 2010 and on the current recording data for 2011–2017. In the vast majority of regions, there is a significant dominance of the regional center over the second city. It manifests itself both in the absolute parameters of the population size and in the shares of regional centers and second cities in the population sizes of their regions. In 31 regions of the country, the share of the regional center by 2002 already reached 35% and continued to increase. Fifteen years later, in 13 regions of the country, it exceeded 45%. The maximum bar of possible concentration of the population in the regional center is not yet visible. Over time, the prevailing of regional centers over the second cities of the regions is increasing. The analysis showed that the opportunities for population increase in the second cities depend on their population size: gradually, between the second cities with a population of more than 250 000 people, the number of growing cities is increasing; between second small cities, the share between depopulating and growing cities is practically unchanged. Thus, the tendencies of centrism in the regions take precedence over polycentricity. The population is increasingly concentrated in separate points, vested with power. These processes are based on historical and evolutionary (history of settlement, development and urbanization), functional-economic, administrative-territorial and demographic determinants. An increasingly important factor contributing to the concentration of the population is institutional factor (associated with the performance by the regional centers of the capital functions and reducing the costs of business and consumers).
The paper summarizes results of long-term remote sensing and geochemical monitoring of soils and vegetation cover influenced with abandoned industrial waste dumping site at the southern periphery of Kursk city. Analysis of prolonged image time series (1954–2018) has resulted in the reconstruction of natural landscape pattern in study area, mapping the expansion of waste deposit area under the period of active exploitation, delineation of five historic-functional zones of the dumping site. These zones are featured with different age and type of technogenic transformations in landscape structure, particular levels of heavy metals’ content and their distribution in soils and vegetation. Studies of spatial pattern and long-term (2000–2017) changes in contamination of soils and technogenic surface formations with heavy metals revealed that the maximum level of soil and vegetation pollution with heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, Cu, Sb) is fixed for the zone of excavation, mixing and secondary burying of industrial wastes in 2000s. Increased concentrations of Sb and Zn still persist in surface soil layers of chernozems outside the territory of abandoned dumping site.
In conditions of intense spatial transformation of Moscow agglomeration (MA), driven by housing construction and migration from Russian regions to MA, urgent task is to build a integrated model of key economic and spatial drivers and outcomes of the transformation. In the article a new model of spatial equilibrium in MA is developed. The model includes three modules: 1) spatial equilibrium model for labour and housing markets in MA; 2) model of dynamic equilibrium between migration and housing construction in MA; 3) model of distribution of housing construction by zones of MA. In the first module equilibrium values of the population, employment and wages are predicted for concentric zones of MA (central business district – CBD, urban zone and zone of new construction). In the second module the equilibrium between migration from Russian regions to MA and new housing construction is shown. The deviation from equilibrium leads to an adjustment of incentives for migration, change of migration flows and finally rebalancing of equilibrium and reproducing of real income gap between MA and other Russian regions. The module 3 describes distribution of housing construction by concentric zones of MA, providing equal profitability of development projects due to adjustment of land prices. Despite the rather generic nature of the model, it is already able to reproduce several trends in spatial evolution of the MA in recent decades, especially the transition from extensive development phase with the spread of urban area in the Moscow suburbs in oil spot fashion and hyper-dense development of CBD, to intensive phase with in-depth development of the main “body” of the city. The model stresses how closely are integrated processes in the largest agglomeration (of Russia and in the national settlement system. The model shows how the political and economic processes through changes in rents and agglomeration effect change incentives for work, life and construction in different areas of MA and form the fate of different urban territories. The model describes the reverse side of the coin, how interregional migration is affected by the internal structure of the Moscow agglomeration. When making decision on the promotion of housing construction, especially largescale economy-class greenfield projects of on the periphery of agglomeration, the city implicitly accepts the decision to increase migration from Russian regions, affecting the national system of settlement in Russia.
The article is dedicated to the 150th anniversary of the birth of the prominent Russian geographer Veniamin Petrovich Semyonov-Tyan-Shansky (April 8, 1870–February 10, 1942) and re-designated the key moments of his scientific formation, the most important of which is “Circle of Geography” concept. Semyonov-Tyan-Shansky developed the concept in 1913, and it determined the main milestones of scientist’s evolution (this “Circle” he would like to have written on its tombstone). His unpublished text “About the missing elements in the adopted system of dividing geography into mathematical, physical, economic and political ones” (dated April 21, 1937) is brought in the scientific discourse for the first time. The article formulates the main directions of posthumous perception and high appreciation of the geographical heritage of Semyonov-Tyan-Shansky by his scientific contemporaries and descendants, shows the continuality in relation to him of the theoretical and geographical work of B.B. Rodoman. The necessity of the critical edition of works of Semyonov-Tyan-Shansky, which would include both his main published (“The Region and the Country”), and not published (“Geographical Laws. Experience of the Higher Geography”) works is discussed.
The sector of intellectual business services is one of key elements of knowledge economy and through the creation, accumulation and dissemination of knowledge contributes to a more dynamic and innovative development not only itself, but also the external environment. The article is devoted to the problems of spatial distribution of the sector of intellectual business services in Russia. The study is founded on the unique empirical base received from the results of mass surveys of Russian producers and consumers of intellectual business services. Collected data have formed quantitative characteristics of spatial distribution of intellectual business services. Comparative analysis of ingoing (demand) and outgoing (supply) fl ows of intellectual business services in the federal districts has allowed to classify the latter according to the level of involvement in the process of these services and to map the intensity of inter-regional supply and demand of federal districts. It is found that companies offering intellectual business services in Russia are highly concentrated in large cities. The demand for intellectual business services is more distributed, but also not spatially neutral. The article may be of interest to researchers dealing with spatial distribution of elements of the innovation economy in Russia. It may be useful for regional authorities to assess the territorial development potential.
On the basis of data for the 1989—2002 and 2003—2010 years, the migration of young people at the level of cities and areas of 19 Russian regions is analyzed. Migration is estimated by the “age-group shift” for the corresponding periods between censuses which provides more accurate estimates in comparison with the data of current statistics. Migration of young people has an expressed centripetal nature everywhere; their migration rate from the province is higher the farther one goes from regional centers. All regional capitals attracted young people in the period under review which has a positive effect on the age structure of their population, and only large cities could retain young people among their population. Migration of young people from the periphery is sustainable; it depends on the common migration attractiveness of regions and reaches the greatest extent in the East and in the depressed areas of the Center. In small and medium-sized cities on the periphery of regions, the outflow of young people almost always reaches the same intensity as in the countryside.