Tourism associated with visits to pristine natural areas for studying, visual enjoying by landscapes, animals, wild plants and the general natural heritage located in these areas, is gaining popularity. The natural tourism, including the desert kind of tourism, involves those activities that directly deal with natural resources and attractions. A large part of Iran’s territory is desert and the formation of the tourist complex is becoming an important direction of socioeconomic development. The objective of the article is to assess potential located in the province of Isfahan (Iran) deserts from the point of view of tourism development. The study used the descriptive-comparative method and method of point scoring. The article shows that deserts of Maranjab, Mesr and Dagh Sorkh received the highest rating of tourist attractiveness. October is the ideal month to visit the deserts of Maranjab and Mesr. Given the availability level of tourist infrastructure, the desert of Mesr ranked the first place in terms of tourist attractiveness. For further development of tourism in the analyzed territories, the investments to improve transport infrastructure and create service centers are necessary. The results of the study showed that the most favorable conditions for the development of desert tourism have territories of Abbas Abad, Matin Abad, Mesr, Farahzad, Hosain Abad, Abuzaid Abad and the cities of Khaled Abad and Badrud.
Housing construction in Moscow agglomeration is a key mechanism stimulating migration inflow because it forms a downward pressure on housing prices, which are the most important barrier for migration. Positive feedback between extensive way of development of the Moscow agglomeration and migration inflow into the capital region stimulates hyperconcentration of the population and economic activity. Theoretical analysis shows that there is equilibrium between housing construction and migration inflow to the Moscow region. According to our estimates, in the 2000-s the relation of migration inflow to housing construction volume (capability of the Moscow agglomeration to accumulate migration) has halved in comparison to the 1990s. Mathematical modeling and empirical data show that this shift was determined by the increase in natural rent distributed in Russia and in agglomeration economies in other major cities of the country. Especially favorable for migration inflow is oil-spot-style extensive way of development of the agglomeration due to the dominance of large greenfield projects of affordable housing in the 30-km zone outside the Moscow Ring Road in housing construction. It is shown that the development of this zone is a key regulator of the migration balance at the national level. Extensive way of development is subsidized by the government through multiple channels, primarily investments in transport infrastructure, what contradicts official goals of the regional policy and the government efforts to mitigate interregional inequality through the fiscal redistribution.
On the basis of the fi rst results of Russia's 2010 population census, the population dynamics of Russia's regions for the 2002--2010 period is described and discrepancies between the census data and the results of the current count of the population for the recent intercensus period are analyzed. The results of the census are critically considered with allowance for problems in its operation in such regions as the North Caucasus republics, Moscow, and certain other regions; the incorrectness of the 2002 census data on the population size in certain regions is argued. Population migration between particular macroregions is estimated based on the net balance of the population from the results of the 2010 census.
The article analyses the dynamics of the population of 75 regional centers and second by population size cities of the regions in Russia. The analysis is based on the population census data from 1959 to 2010 and on the current recording data for 2011–2017. In the vast majority of regions, there is a significant dominance of the regional center over the second city. It manifests itself both in the absolute parameters of the population size and in the shares of regional centers and second cities in the population sizes of their regions. In 31 regions of the country, the share of the regional center by 2002 already reached 35% and continued to increase. Fifteen years later, in 13 regions of the country, it exceeded 45%. The maximum bar of possible concentration of the population in the regional center is not yet visible. Over time, the prevailing of regional centers over the second cities of the regions is increasing. The analysis showed that the opportunities for population increase in the second cities depend on their population size: gradually, between the second cities with a population of more than 250 000 people, the number of growing cities is increasing; between second small cities, the share between depopulating and growing cities is practically unchanged. Thus, the tendencies of centrism in the regions take precedence over polycentricity. The population is increasingly concentrated in separate points, vested with power. These processes are based on historical and evolutionary (history of settlement, development and urbanization), functional-economic, administrative-territorial and demographic determinants. An increasingly important factor contributing to the concentration of the population is institutional factor (associated with the performance by the regional centers of the capital functions and reducing the costs of business and consumers).
The paper summarizes results of long-term remote sensing and geochemical monitoring of soils and vegetation cover influenced with abandoned industrial waste dumping site at the southern periphery of Kursk city. Analysis of prolonged image time series (1954–2018) has resulted in the reconstruction of natural landscape pattern in study area, mapping the expansion of waste deposit area under the period of active exploitation, delineation of five historic-functional zones of the dumping site. These zones are featured with different age and type of technogenic transformations in landscape structure, particular levels of heavy metals’ content and their distribution in soils and vegetation. Studies of spatial pattern and long-term (2000–2017) changes in contamination of soils and technogenic surface formations with heavy metals revealed that the maximum level of soil and vegetation pollution with heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, Cu, Sb) is fixed for the zone of excavation, mixing and secondary burying of industrial wastes in 2000s. Increased concentrations of Sb and Zn still persist in surface soil layers of chernozems outside the territory of abandoned dumping site.
In conditions of intense spatial transformation of Moscow agglomeration (MA), driven by housing construction and migration from Russian regions to MA, urgent task is to build a integrated model of key economic and spatial drivers and outcomes of the transformation. In the article a new model of spatial equilibrium in MA is developed. The model includes three modules: 1) spatial equilibrium model for labour and housing markets in MA; 2) model of dynamic equilibrium between migration and housing construction in MA; 3) model of distribution of housing construction by zones of MA. In the first module equilibrium values of the population, employment and wages are predicted for concentric zones of MA (central business district – CBD, urban zone and zone of new construction). In the second module the equilibrium between migration from Russian regions to MA and new housing construction is shown. The deviation from equilibrium leads to an adjustment of incentives for migration, change of migration flows and finally rebalancing of equilibrium and reproducing of real income gap between MA and other Russian regions. The module 3 describes distribution of housing construction by concentric zones of MA, providing equal profitability of development projects due to adjustment of land prices. Despite the rather generic nature of the model, it is already able to reproduce several trends in spatial evolution of the MA in recent decades, especially the transition from extensive development phase with the spread of urban area in the Moscow suburbs in oil spot fashion and hyper-dense development of CBD, to intensive phase with in-depth development of the main “body” of the city. The model stresses how closely are integrated processes in the largest agglomeration (of Russia and in the national settlement system. The model shows how the political and economic processes through changes in rents and agglomeration effect change incentives for work, life and construction in different areas of MA and form the fate of different urban territories. The model describes the reverse side of the coin, how interregional migration is affected by the internal structure of the Moscow agglomeration. When making decision on the promotion of housing construction, especially largescale economy-class greenfield projects of on the periphery of agglomeration, the city implicitly accepts the decision to increase migration from Russian regions, affecting the national system of settlement in Russia.
The sector of intellectual business services is one of key elements of knowledge economy and through the creation, accumulation and dissemination of knowledge contributes to a more dynamic and innovative development not only itself, but also the external environment. The article is devoted to the problems of spatial distribution of the sector of intellectual business services in Russia. The study is founded on the unique empirical base received from the results of mass surveys of Russian producers and consumers of intellectual business services. Collected data have formed quantitative characteristics of spatial distribution of intellectual business services. Comparative analysis of ingoing (demand) and outgoing (supply) fl ows of intellectual business services in the federal districts has allowed to classify the latter according to the level of involvement in the process of these services and to map the intensity of inter-regional supply and demand of federal districts. It is found that companies offering intellectual business services in Russia are highly concentrated in large cities. The demand for intellectual business services is more distributed, but also not spatially neutral. The article may be of interest to researchers dealing with spatial distribution of elements of the innovation economy in Russia. It may be useful for regional authorities to assess the territorial development potential.
On the basis of data for the 1989—2002 and 2003—2010 years, the migration of young people at the level of cities and areas of 19 Russian regions is analyzed. Migration is estimated by the “age-group shift” for the corresponding periods between censuses which provides more accurate estimates in comparison with the data of current statistics. Migration of young people has an expressed centripetal nature everywhere; their migration rate from the province is higher the farther one goes from regional centers. All regional capitals attracted young people in the period under review which has a positive effect on the age structure of their population, and only large cities could retain young people among their population. Migration of young people from the periphery is sustainable; it depends on the common migration attractiveness of regions and reaches the greatest extent in the East and in the depressed areas of the Center. In small and medium-sized cities on the periphery of regions, the outflow of young people almost always reaches the same intensity as in the countryside.
Symbolic management becomes more often an integral part of the policy at the regional and local levels. On the base of empirical material, including examples from the World and Russian practice possibilities of the symbol management in assistance in modernization and development of the regions by internal resources: consolidation of local societies, strengthening of their attachment to the areas, construction of authentic and admissible for the population projects of the cities and regions are discussed in the article. Main specifi c features of the symbolic programmes and specifi c diffi culties in reconstruction of identity, which infl uence on selection and application of symbolic strategies, are also discussed.
No tree-ring chronologies were reported so far in the International Tree Ring Data Bank for the central part of the East-European Plain. This absence is traditionally explained by the lack of motivation for tree-ring research in this area. Indeed, due to the intense anthropogenic press the old trees are rare in this region and the climatic signal embedded in the ring width is not strong and is always complex. In this study we present the new tree-ring network of 9 ring width chronologies of pine (Pinus sylvestris) up to 297 years long in a large region of about 450 km in diameter in the Central Russia (54–57N, 33–40E) and analyze their climatic response. Tree ring growth in the region is controlled by both temperature and precipitation of vegetation period, and all the analyzed chronologies have significant correlation with summer PDSI values (with coefficients up to r≤0.4). All of them were sampled after the year 2010 when a severe summer drought spread over the European part of Russia. This allowed spatial analysis of 2010 year annual ring (and rings related to the years of other known severe droughts of 20th century) in the context of drought impact on tree growth. This study is a starting point for constructing large tree ring network for further investigation of severity and spatial distribution of droughts in European Russia in the past.
Contemporary challenges and threats to sustainable development including safe use of transboundary resources of rivers and Arctic seas in condition of climate change are connected with cumulative impact of numerous factors. Ongoing environmental changes have transboundary nature and will have significant impact in international scale. In case of overlapping of factors of impact their nature and synergetic effect, mechanisms of their interrelated influence and possible negative consequences for global economy, environment and human health are not adequately known. Among the main obstacles to mitigation of climate change impact on the state of big river basins in the Arctic and Arctic seas are: the lack of critically important information and data, absence of modern concepts of climate change mitigation measures connected with impact on Arctic seas, uncoordinated and inefficient regulation and management, absence of unified interstate tools of marine spatial planning. The article contains the analysis of risks and global consequences of the ongoing climate change for water resources; characteristic of priority issues and their underlying root causes. It also contains the results of the analysis of risks connected with melting of permafrost and increase in thermal coast erosion, assessment of the role of transboundary cooperation of water issues for sustainable regional development. The authors also propose some measures for addressing the above issues based on the Strategic Programme of Actions on the Protection of the Russian Part of the Arctic developed by the Ministry of Economic Development of Russia.
The article examines the intensity of net intraregional and interregional migration of the population of regional centers and the secondary (by population) cities in 74 regions of Russia between 2012–2016. The information basis of the study is formed by municipalities’ indicators database for the relevant years. The low saturation of the Russian territory with cities should logically lead to the migration attractiveness of the secondary cities in the intraregional migration process, as they should be the important focuses of social and economic life. That should be expressed by a positive net migration coefficient. In fact, this is the case in 42 regions. In other regions, the final balance of intraregional migration of the secondary cities is negative. At the same time, migration can be considered as an indicator of the conditional well-being of the secondary cities both in the context of having their own stable hinterland and from socio-economic perspective. Regional centers are attractive for intraregional migrants almost everywhere. Such consistency is the result of the concentration of financial and other flows and powers in the regions’ capital cities and, regardless of the socio-economic situation, a better quality of life there compared to other municipalities of the same regions. Indicators of interregional migration are more ambiguous: from the standpoint of the net-migration balance not only the second cities of the regions, but also many regional centers are unattractive for interregional migrants. Limited demographic resources and the presence of the two powerful centers of migration attraction at the country level (Moscow and St. Petersburg) do not leave room for interregional migration growth to the most regional centers.