Россия: демографические вызовы ближайших десятилетий
The paper highlights demographic challenges confronting the state today. These are: a high death rate, decrease of population size and negative changes in age composition. It also considers the tendencies of social and demographic development of the Republic of Bashkortostan in the context of Russia-wide processes and determines the priorities of social policy.
The goal of our study was to figure out the dynamic of neurodegeneration in healthy subjects, patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and to compare processes of pathological neurodegeneration and normal aging. For these purposes we registered saccadic eye movements using electrooculography. 27 patients with PD, 5 patients with PSP and 52 healthy volunteers took part in the study. To analyze aging dynamic all participants were divided into matching age groups.
In healthy volunteers the mean saccade latency and the percentage of multistep saccades increase significantly after the age of 60. Values of these characteristics in patients with PD significantly exceed the values in the corresponding age groups of healthy subjects. The duration of single saccades depends on age to a smaller extent and does not change in patients with PD. In patients with PSP eye movement abnormalities are more salient than in patients with PD. Restriction of vertical gaze in PSP appears even on early stages of disease. As the disease progresses oculomotor abnormalities became more pronounced: decreasing of saccades amount, limitation of vertical and horizontal gaze and eye movements mismatch were revealed.
Thereby the saccades characteristics analysis allows us to reveal the rate of neurodegeneration that may be useful for early diagnostics and treatment control.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.