Водные ресурсы и эффективное распределение природоохранного бюджета
The main objective of OECD project was the development of recommendations aimed at improving the use of economic and other instruments for management of water resources for ensuring sustainable development of water sector, as well as socio-economic development of the Republic of Buryatia as the whole. The project consisted of three stages that resulted in the devуlopment of specific relevant reports, included in the given series of works implemented on the commission of OECD.
Proposed recommendations rather relate to improvement of water policies while the aim of the series of projects was not the development of detailed methodologies or instructions on application of specific instruments, but identification of a main direction of policy in the field of water resource management. Such methodological guidence on application and improvement of various administrative and economic instruments would be developed later, after principal political decisions on the proposed measures are made.
We study the relationship between income and environmental quality based on modern Russian city-level data. The paper aims at testing whether the environmental Kuznets curve relationship between air pollution and average monthly wages holds in Russian cities and towns. Our preliminary results support the presence of an inverted U-shaped function of wages and reveal significant spatial autocorrelation of air pollution indicators of Russian cities and towns.
The article represents the results of epidemiological study during the period from 2001 to 2010 among indigenous population of 5 settlements of Chukci and Nenetz autonomous disticts. The aim of the study was identification of changes in concentrations of hazardous substances related to persistent pollutants (polychlorinated byphenils) in blood after realization in 2003-2004 of a complex of measures on detoxification of local sources of pollution and reduction of risks of their negative impact on humans, recommended by the International expert group of Arctic monitoring and assessment (AMAP) . It was identified that significant reduction of average concentrations of pollutants in blood by 2010 was observed only for men of Nenetz autonomus district for DDT and 4,4 DDE, as well as for lead. Changes in concentrations of the majority of other persistent toxic substances, though observed, did not reach the level of statistical importance.
The article reviews the normative documents regulating the environmental load in the Russian Federation, provides a summary on the contamination, analyzes the dynamics of pollutant air emissions and cancerous diseases in Russia, identifies populated areas with high and low pollutant air emissions. The study is complete with a regression analysis showing that the increase in sulfur dioxide emissions is an acceptable indicator of the malignant neoplasms risk assessment.
The article deals with actual methodological and organizational and technical problems that prevent the correct obtaining and interpretation of evidence of the harmful effects of environmental pollution on public health, as well as non-critical application of the principle of linear summation of the frequency of harmful effects of unidirectional active substances at any level of their impact are considered. The limitations and conditions under which such summation can be applied if the content of harmful substances in the environment below the relevant MAC. The needs for further development of the methodology for the aggregated assessment of the harmful effects of pollution on health are identified. It is shown that the model cannot be considered evidence-based if it is unable to provide a sufficiently reliable prediction of harm to health in cases where the risk environment is represented by a combination of factors of different nature and conditions of their impact that do not meet the criteria of stability and coherence of the Association.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.