Занятость работников предприятий оборонно-промышленного комплекса (гендерный аспект)
The paper deals with fertility in regions of Russia in 2018. The tendency common for Russian regions in that year was a decrease of fertility of 1 st and 2 nd children with a rise of fertility of 3 rd and subsequent children. Fertility of 3 rd and subsequent children was higher in regions with low level of incomes and employment. However, growth of this fertility parameter in the recent years was not concentrated in economically underdeveloped regions. Higher fertility in regions of the North Caucasus gets a separate treatment, which differs considerable from country-level patterns both in its level and age characteristics.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.