Проблемы изучения новой лексики на основе Интернет-источников
We attempt to describe the peculiarities of studying English neologisms and nonce words by means of a new research technique, offerd by modern information and communication technologies - open online dictionaries. We highlight debatable aspects of using these sources of linguistic data, including theoretical and practical issues of analyzing new words.
Constantine Manasses’ versified Chronicle abounds in compound epithets built according to the same model: 2 simple stems from adjectives belonging to the 2nd (often contracted) declension, the 2nd stem is, as a rule, monosyllable. There are tens of epithets sharing common 2nd stem. Yet, the impression of uniformity is misleading. Among seemingly similar adjectives can be distinguished: 1. words borrowed by Manasses from the poetic tradition, 2. neologisms coined by the poet according to the existing model, and 3. words of ambiguous provenance. The article deals with the question of how Manasses himself viewed this limitless creation of new lexemes and speculates on the status of borrowings from rare sources against the backdrop of Manasses’ ability to produce on his own virtually indistinguishable epithets.
The paper analyzes potential words and forms in original poetry by Nika Skandiaki as compared to those in her poetic translations. Focusing on the difference between the occasional and the potential in poetic language, and suggesting a quantitative criterion if such differentiation, the author draws a conclusion that in the language of original Russian poetry the occasional is more significant than the potential, and in the language of poetic translations - vice versa, for the strategies of a poet and of a translator are different.
The paper continues research into words denoting everyday life objects in the Russian language. This research is conducted for developing a new encyclopedic thesaurus of Russian everyday life terminology. Working on this project brings up linguistic material which leads to discovering new trends and phenomena not covered by the existing dictionaries. We discuss derivation models which gain polularity: clipped forms (komp < komp’juter ‘computer’, nout < noutbuk ‘notebook computer’, vel < velosiped ‘bicycle’, mot<motocikl ‘motorbike’), competing masculine and feminine con- tracted nouns derived from adjectival noun phrases (mobil’nik (m.) / mo- bilka (f.) < mobil’nyj telefon (m.) ‘mobile phone’, zarjadnik (m.) / zarjadka (f.) < zarjadnoe ustrojstvo (n.) ‘AC charger’), hybrid compounds (plat’e- sviter ‘sweater dress’, jubka-brjuki ‘skirt pants’, shapkosharf ‘scarf hat’, vilkolozhka ‘spork, foon’). These words vary in spelling and syntactic behav- iour. We describe a newly formed series of words denoted multifunctional objects: mfushkaZ< MFU < mnogofunkcional’noe ustrojstvo ‘MFD, multi- function device’, mul’titul ‘multitool’, centr ‘unit, set’. Explaining the need to compose frequency lists of word meanings rather than just words, we of- fer a technique for gathering such lists and provide a sample produced from our own data. We also analyze existing dictionaries and perform various experiments to study the changes in word meanings and their comparative importance for speakers. We believe that, apart from the practical usage for our lexicographic project, our results might prove interesting for research in the evolution of the Russian lexical system.
There are essentially two approaches to the question of the boundaries of translatability. The former claims that translation is impossible as each language interprets reality in its own way and each linguistic community perceives the world in its own particular way. The latter approaches untranslatability as a more specific problem – the one which arises due to the existence of certain “gaps” between the source language (SL) and the target language (TL), but is somehow solved in each case. The article discusses a particular case of untranslatability – the rendering of the SL nonce words (or occasional words). They are created ad hoc and characterized by the entirety of the conventional and the individual, the stereotype and creativity as well as the author’s linguistic and extralinguistic background. Nonce words do not have fixed translation equivalents, thus forcing the translator to make a specific translation decision each time s/he encounters a nonce word in the SL text. The translation decision depends on the understanding of the SL text, which, in the case of nonce words, can be a challenge for the translator. The context helps to overcome the problem of understanding but the context only is not enough when the text is “linguistically preconditioned”. An example of a linguistically preconditioned text is Ulysses written by J. Joyce. We argue that it is the world building pattern (model) that fosters the understanding of the SL nonce words and helps the translator to make a translation decision. The statistical analysis shows that J. Joyce’s nonce words are mainly formed by conventional word buildings patterns, with composition being the most frequently used model (61 %) and affixation and conversion being used less often (16 % and 3 % respectively). The comparative analysis of J. Joyce’s nonce lexis and its Russian and German translation equivalents demonstrates that the translators tend to use the replication of the word building pattern as a prevalent translation method (70 % and 50 % for German and Russian translations respectively). Transliteration/transcription (16 % and 7 % for German and Russian translations respectively), omission (1 % and 3 %) and transformation (3 % and 18 %) as well as the usage of conventional TL lexis (10 % and 25 %) are the methods which are less regularly used to render J. Joyce’s nonce words. This data indicates that the German language is more likely to allow the translator to replicate the form of an English nonce word. It results from the close genetic relationship between English and German. Overall, the research findings indicate that even intrinsically “untranslatable” units (such as nonce words) can be translated. Yet, the problem of translatability cannot be fully solved as nonce words have neither a conventional form nor a conventional meaning.
The article is concerned with the structure and the significance of the word polusonok created by O. E. Mandel’štam. The author reconstructs its derivational history and demonstrates that the word was created for expressing a plurale tantum.
This article continues a series of papers on Latin bird names coined by Theodore Gaza in his translation of Aristotle’s Historia animalium. Varro explains the etymology of the bird name motacilla as follows: “quod semper movet caudam” (LL 5, 76). Following this explanation, Theodore Gaza, the author of the Latin translation of Aristotle’s Historia animalium printed in 1476 and extremely authoritative in the sixteenth century, inferred the existence of the word cilla ‘bird tail, rump’. Perhaps he drew this idea from a medieval glossary. In any case, it was only for rendering Greek bird names with the component ‘rump’ or ‘tail’ that he coined neologisms in -cilla, namely πύγαργος (< πυγή+ἀργός, 618b9) — albicilla, πυρρουράς (< πυρρός+οὐρά, 592b22) — rubicilla, φοινίκουρος (< φοῖνιξ+οὐρά, 632b28–29) — ruticilla. At line 593b3, he rendered πύγαργος with a different neologism, albicula, which is to be considered, given the clear etymology of the Greek word, a compound formed from cūlus ‘the posteriors, fundament’ rather than a diminutive. Therefore, the word rubecula that Gaza coined translating the bird name ἐρίθακος should be, apparently, interpreted as a similar formation, from ἐρυθρός ‘red’ and θᾶκος ‘seat’. The proposed etymology of these bird names sheds light upon Gaza’s method of treating variant readings in the Greek text. It turns out that, at least twice, he translated two variae lectiones of the same word and put both in his Latin text, one after another. Certainly, this could be explained by the presence of an incorporated gloss in one of Gaza’s Greek Vorlagen, not attested in manuscripts extant today, but it could also indicate a contaminative tendency in Gaza’s way of translating. In the second part of the article, early modern reception of the aforementioned Greek and Latin bird names is traced. Namely, it is shown how William Turner’s 1544 Avium praecipuarum, quarum apud Plinium et Aristotelem mentio est, brevis et succincta historia influenced the formation of modern ornithological nomenclature. The studied cases show that Turner’s identifications of Aristotle’s bird names with contemporary vernacular ones defined the fate of the Greek words and their Neo-Latin equivalents. Together with the 1555 ornithological volume of Conrad Gessner’s Historia animalium where those identifications were taken over, Turner’s book launched the process of reassigning meanings, a process crucial for the establishment of modern animal nomenclature.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.