Раскрашенные графы и матричные интегралы
We discuss applications of generating functions for colored graphs to asymptotic expansions of matrix integrals. The described technique provides an asymptotic expansion of the Kontsevich integral. We prove that this expansion is a refinement of the Kontsevich expansion, which is the sum over the set of classes of isomorphic ribbon graphs. This yields a proof of Kontsevich’s results that is independent of the Feynman graph technique.
Applying methods of plane Power Geometry we are looking for the asymptotic expansions of solutions to the fifth Painleve ́ equation in the neighbourhood of its singular and nonsingular points.
We introduce a new method for improving the coverage accuracy of confidence intervals for means of lattice distributions. The technique can be applied very generally to enhance existing approaches, although we consider it in greatest detail in the context of estimating a binomial proportion or a Poisson mean, where it is particularly effective. The method is motivated by a simple theoretical result, which shows that, by splitting the original sample of size n into two parts, of sizes n_1 and n_2=n-n_1, and basing the confidence procedure on the average of the means of these two subsamples, the highly oscillatory behaviour of coverage error, as a function of n, is largely removed. Perhaps surprisingly, this approach does not increase confidence interval width; usually the width is slightly reduced. Contrary to what might be expected, our new method performs well when it is used to modify confidence intervals based on existing techniques that already perform very well--it typically improves significantly their coverage accuracy. Each application of the split sample method to an existing confidence interval procedure results in a new technique.
We examine asymptotic expansions of the third Painlevé transcendents for αδ ≠ 0 and γ = 0 in the neighborhood of infinity in a sector of aperture <2π by the method of dominant balance). We compare intermediate results with results obtained by methods of three-dimensional power geometry. We find possible asymptotics in terms of elliptic functions, construct a power series, which represents an asymptotic expansion of the solution to the third Painlevé equation in a certain sector, estimate the aperture of this sector, and obtain a recurrent relation for the coefficients of the series.
We review quantum field theory approach to the knot theory. Using holomorphic gauge we obtain the Kontsevich integral. It is explained how to calculate Vassiliev invariants and coefficients in Kontsevich integral in a combinatorial way which can be programmed on a computer. We discuss experimental results and temporal gauge considerations which lead to representation of Vassiliev invariants in terms of arrow diagrams. Explicit examples and computational results are presented
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.
Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.