Nonstandart forms and measures of employment and unemployment in transition: a comparative study of Estonia, Romania and Russia
This paper looks behind the standard, publicly available labor force statistics relied upon in most studies of transition economy labor markets. We analyze microdata on detailed labor force survey responses in Russia, Romania, and Estonia to measure nonstandard, boundary forms and alternative definitions of employment and unemployment. Our calculations show that measured rates are quite sensitive to definition, particularly in the treatment of household production (subsistence agriculture), unpaid family helpers, and discouraged workers, while the categories of part-time work and other forms of marginal attachment are still relatively unimportant. We find that tweaking the official definitions in apparently minor ways can produce alternative employment rates that are sharply higher in Russia but much lower in Romania and slightly lower in Estonia, and alternative unemployment rates that are sharply higher in Romania and moderately higher in Estonia and Russia.
In the 1990s The Russian transitional economy was characterized by many adverse economic processes, but the very important are two of these ones. The first one was the long and biggest fall in output and fixed capital investment. The second was monetary degradation which is increase of primitive mediums of exchange and means of payment – cash, inter-enterprise arrears ("non-payments") and barter – and (relative and absolute) decrease of "advanced" kinds of money. The goal of this article is to explain interconnections between these processes. The main idea is that these phenomena were generated by shock therapy policy which is turned to be a something like “reverse gradualism”. It means that shock therapy policy is the immediate introduction of all reforms but is not immediate completion of all ones. If that policy takes place, logically later reforms are ended more early because of its extremely small relative duration! That was a case of Russia in the 1990s.
Importance Many economic agents hide the facts of bribery they were involved into, so it is important to study the nature of corruption perceptions to estimate the latent phenomenon. The difference between estimations on official data and perceptions prove that need. Moreover, anticorruption legislation may not work in case of strong pro-corruptive institutions.
Objectives Revealing relationship of corruption perceptions to different factors, especially for transitional economies.
Methods Nonparametric and regression empirical estimations. The relationship between corruption perceptions (CPI) and GDP per capita, wellbeing, shadow economy size and institutional characteristics, such as government quality.
Results We have found empirical evidence for the hypothesis that shadow economy and corruption can be both substitutes and complements, the last is true for high income and low shadow economy countries. If shadow economy is huge, the relationship vanishes. Income is relevant in macro-analysis, but on individual data the relationship does not seem to be strong. Institutional quality has negative relationship with corruption perceptions, both for formal and informal institutions. We also touch upon the question of the difference between informal institutions, such as trust, in developed European and post-socialist countries.
Conclusions and Relevance Results can be used in long-term anticorruption policy, as institutional changes can lead to lower corruption.
One of the most popular statements in the systemic transition literature since the second half of the 1990th is that different experiences of the CEE and Baltic states, on the one hand, and the most of the CIS countries, on the other hand, are embedded in different social norms and values, encouraging efforts in the new EU member states and preventing it in some of CIS countries.
This book focuses on the nature and role of entrepreneurship in modern developed and emerging economies and societies, its relation to governments and universities, and its role in the often-forgotten informal economy. The aim is to position entrepreneurship in the post-crisis context and explore how its relation to universities and governments contributes to explain the countries’ and territories’ growth performance and resilience or vulnerability to the crisis. The accent is particularly on processes and patterns at local level and in small and medium-sized enterprises in local economic systems and districts, local systems of innovation, and the types and configurations of innovation these give origin to.
With globalization, entrepreneurship has become fundamental for the competitiveness of territories and countries, for policy management and for development. The local dimension is fundamental because of agglomeration economies and effects, the advantages of proximity and the nature of knowledge and information. Furthermore, territories carry to the centre-stage tacit knowledge, localized social capital, embeddedness and interpersonal relations as fundamental components of their endogenous socio-economic development and competitiveness. When local systems are connected in a horizontal network, they contribute to the strength of national and international systems. To play a constructive role from this perspective, entrepreneurship must avoid local entrenchment and support the local economy to upgrade and be competitive. To do this, the entrepreneurs’ interaction and alliance with universities and governments is a must for those countries and localities wanting to emerge. This requires that enterprises, universities and governments create synergies and spill-overs to their mutual advantage.