The Chapter describes the concept of import substitution and the approaches of different authors to this concept. The main emphasis is on the fact that import substitution is part of the state economic policy. The historical aspects of the emergence of this concept are considered.
This paper represents an initial report on findings for a study aimed at analyzing several key aspects of middle class development in the Russian regions (subjects of Federation - oblasts, krays, autonomous republics), namely: Federal and regional government programs to stimulate the growth of the middle class (content, tools of implementation, effectiveness); Behavioral strategies and economic behavior (consumption patterns propensity to save, investment) of different sections of Russian middle class; Middle class value orientation and political preferences (including preferences for democracy).
At present time, business community is one of the most influential actors in the political process of national and global scale. It is worth noting that the level of such impact of business structures increases, and the largest of them practically amalgamate with the government structures. Each large corporation or community has proprietary interests in small business associations, which conduces their active participation in the political arena. The development of the Russian business and concurrent increase of investment attractiveness of Russia as a whole and its separate regions in particular, require changes in the goals and mechanisms of communication between the commercial structures and government bodies. Mutual involvement of government, business community, and public organizations in establishment of the intelligible and stable system of relations lead to the expansion of strategic and tactical arsenal of communicative management in the sphere of government relations (GR). Revealing the notion of GR-interaction, the author focuses attention on the theoretical and subject-object approach towards determination of the common in the sphere of business communication with government authorities. In the aspect of presenting the new model of GR communication and its inclusion into the Russian political process, the author sees a necessary prerequisite to the discourse on establishment and modernization of the GR-interaction in the context of universal socioeconomic reforms. The central idea lies in the impossibility of ensuring the instrumental technological modernization without changing the business climate, investment policy, and formation of the normative legal base in the area of advancement of private interests.