Традиционное или рациональное? Интерпретация традиции в творчестве М. Вебера
In this early paper C. Wright Mills tries to ground the possibility for the study of thinking (including logical) from the perspective of sociology of knowledge. Following G.H. Mead, he shows that thinking is a social process because every thinker converses with his or her audience using the norms of rationality and logicality common to his or her culture. Language serves as a mediator between thinking and social patterns. Proposing to consider the meaning of language as the common social behavior evoked by it, Mills finds a way to combine three levels of analysis: psychological, social and cultural.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.