Анализ эффективности мер противодействия нелегальной деятельности в условиях коррупции
The effectiveness of various countermeasures against illegal activities and corruption is analyzed in a situation when law enforcement is performed by corrupt policemen, while the probability of punishment and the size of bribe are supposed to be determined endogenously. In particular, the effect of increased punishment (fi ne) and greater amount of resources allocated to combat these offenses is examined.
Modeling threats and vulnerabilities of information security is widely used as a foreign practices and recommendations of national standards . The key disadvantage of the methods is the lack of a formalized description of conceptual solutions for the design of information systems. In this regard, the article proposes to consider a special variant of the description of the conceptual solution in the form of formalized '' models'' . This is an important step in establishing links between business requirements and capabilities of information technology. The article proposes to improve existing solutions architecture, consisting of three key components: the modeling component and architectural risk analysis module .
Legal system is a concept embodying the multifacetedness of law, i.e. its internal architecture (elements of law which are complex systems per se), correlations within the system, interaction of law with other parts of socium. Legal system has been the subject matter both of law and sociology of law. Each of the sciences has developed its own approaches to this phenomenon, which do not tend to cross. Each science makes its own path not addressing the achievements of the interdisciplinary discipline. Sociology of law doctrines are considered by the author as the instruments to widen the cognitive borders of the traditional for lawyers positivist approach to law, to discover topical research perspectives. On the basis of the views of T Parsons, D. Black, N. Luhmann, P. Bourdieu, the article develops the methodology of the social approach to legal system, reveals its advantages and disadvantages. Sociologists are used to shifting a significant role in functioning legal system to legal professionals. They focus on the contradictions in the relations between legal framework (legal system, normative system etc.) and politics. The views of sociologists are extrapolated to the current reality of Russian legal system. Its majour issue is seen in the imbalance between law and politics as the ruling elite imposes a beneficial for it structure of legal system on society, intervenes in legal communication including judicial enforcement of courts and law enforcement agencies. The majour attention of lawyers should be drawn to ensuring their relative independence, widening the autonomy of legal framework and legal communications, and building up their authority when adopting paramount legal acts. This is the only way to create a prerequisite to tackle the problems which the legal system of Russian society is facing. The article covers the current empirical legal approaches suggested by sociologists as well as the causes for such research, results, perspectives and possibilities to engage jurists in such studies.
This study is concerned with interrelations between buyers and sellers formed on the illegal market of marijuana in Saint-Petersburg. Our research is based on the analysis of interviews with 11 marijuana users aged from 19 to 24. We found that people consuming drugs systematically are more included in economic transactions on the illegal market than non-regular users. Apart from that, our results show that the market has a difficult structure, which is based on social ties between its participants. But, at the same time, the existing structure allows buyers to act opportunistically and deceive their clients.
A number of papers are reviewed containing social and economic research of commercial sex market (prostitution). A systematic approach to various aspects of prostitution helps reveal and identify its key features as a market and a type of employment, which can form the basis for economic modeling of commercial sex industry.