Цифровые технологии репутации в городской повседневности: между капитализмом платформ и государственным социальным рейтингом
This paper is devoted to a comparative analysis of the two most significant approaches to what could be termed digital reputation technologies (between the 2010s and the 2020s). The first approach, implemented in Europe and North America, relies on rankings and other reputation metrics operated by proprietary platforms (from Facebook and Airbnb to YouDo). IT technologies and platforms have transformed reputation (something that heretofore had been elusive yet accessible and shared by all members of a formal or informal group) into a calculable and transparent metric accessible to anyone. The second approach, implemented primarily in the People's Republic of China (the social credit), operates not so much for the purposes of oversight and control as for the widespread implementation of reputation formation techniques, their evaluation and rating, with the aid of big data. The state, in this new model does not order and direct, producing thousands of laws and decrees, but rather regulates the networks and interactions of people and technical artifacts. The authors pay particular attention to how ratings and reputation, functioning online, irradiate outward and affect the physical interactions of actors in the urban spaces. Finally, we sketch an array of potential institutional forms of resistance to these new forms of control.