Новые акценты в развитии инновационной деятельности: инновации, инициируемые пользователями
The paper investigates the process of evolutionary transformation of cooperation and integration modes of industrial and construction enterprises in St.-Petersburg. The study has been performed at the period since 1998 to nowadays. The network form of integration was chosen as the main objet of this research. The paper is aimed at identifying the path of knowledge management development in different types of networks.
One of the peculiarities of the network form of integration is the high level of independence of the network participants that interact with each other. Key issues in this cooperation would be the following:
How to organize an effective transfer of knowledge and technologies within a network?
How to find a balance between open systems of innovation and the protection of the intellectual property of network participants?
How to evaluate the intellectual capital of a network? Is it necessary to make an assessment for each participant separately? Should one take into account synergies that increase the value of the intellectual capital because of the network participants’ interaction and knowledge sharing?
How to increase competitiveness of each company and of the whole network by the effective use of the intellectual capital?
How to measure the impact of open innovations on the intellectual capital of the companies interacting within a network?
Thus, it is important to reveal how knowledge management system is developing within a network of inter-related enterprises.
On the base of interviews of top-managers of companies in industrial and construction companies there were identified five different types of networks and knowledge management systems within these types. It is demonstrated how the knowledge management model is growing and becoming mature from the amorphous type of network cooperation to the integrated type. Factors, influencing this evolutionary development, have been revealed. Also, the paper proposes an approach to the evaluation of knowledge management systems based upon the value-based management indicators.
The chapter provides a substantial overview of features and channels of knowledge and technology transfer in light of achieving impact from science and research. A taxonomy of transfer channels is proved and levels of impact from science and technology on innovation is proposed. It’s found that there are different levels of value generated from STI, each featuring different stakeholders with different agendas and expectations. The authors argue that to make knowledge and technology transfer impactful and sustainable a long term and holistic view and approach is required. Against most literature about technology and knowledge transfer this work presents an overarching overview of objects, channels and features of partners involved in transfer. It features technology and knowledge transfer from a holistic perspective and provides useful background for future empiric studies and impact assessments.