Чей это ребёнок? Проблема конструирования и деконструирования родственных уз на рынке донорских гамет
Invention and subsequent development of human reproduction technologies allow people to manage reproductive risks, overcome infertility and widen alternative reproductive choice. Medicine has given men and women the access to programmes of saving biogenetic material, DNA-tests for identifying paternity and services for creating a genetic passport which identifies potential diseases and genetic peculiarities. However, assisted reproductive technologies, such as donorship of sex cells and surrogate motherhood, are violating the familiar integrity of reproductive process and changing the usual perception of kinship as sharing of biological substance. A distinguishing feature of the market for gamete donation and surrogate motherhood lies in the importance of both construction and deconstruction of kinship between donors, recipients of reproductive goods and services and a baby, who is born with the help of the ART methods (assisted reproductive technologies). Basing on the results of sociological research of donor sex cells market, the author of the article shows us how members of reproductive business coordinate different parts of their work (technical, emotional, legal, financial etc.), in order to solve the controversial problem of defining kinship between the participants of the donor programmes. On the one hand, medical specialists and representatives of reproductive agencies take part in destroying the kinship between a gamete donor and a baby, and on the other hand, they participate in creating and supporting kin ties between parents received donor sex cells and a baby, who doesn’t have common gens with them. Empirical study base consists of expert interviews with the employees of medical clinics and reproductive agencies in Moscow and Saint Petersburg.