Shipmasters, customs, merchants and the Russian coastal experience in the Baltic ports of the 18th century
This article explores the specifics of commercial shipping in the Russian Empire’s ports. Actors involved in commercial activities in ports are considered in the perspective of maritime experience. Custom officers, shipmasters and merchants all participated to the commercial activities and coastal experiences of the ports of the Russian Empire. The article traces the impact of spatial specifics on commercial and maritime practices in different ports of the Russian Empire, such as Saint-Petersburg, Riga, Vyborg and Narva. Because of spatial and legal aspects, imperial control of, as well as knowledge about, these ports differed significantly from one to another.
The article is devoted to the presumptions in standard-setting activities of the ministries of the Russian Empire.The presumption of "ideal of a single government" is considered as the presumption of the unity of the monarch and the Ministers of the Russian Empire. The role of legal presumptions in the lawmaking activity of the Imperial state is handled. The emphasis is made on the development of the mentioned presumption in the framework of the activities of the ministers for the initiation and submission of bills to the law-deliberative and legislative bodies of the Russian Empire.
The article is devoted to the distinction between forms of legislative acts in the Russian Empire. Analogy with the modern problem of law-making, which are connected with the allocation of forms, types of regulations, the procedure of their publication is carried out.
The Pan-European Institute publishes a quarterly discussion forum Baltic Rim Economies (BRE) which focuses on the development of the Baltic Sea region. In BRE, high level public and corporate decision makers, representatives of Academia, and several other experts contribute to the discussion.
Monograph is devoted to the functional activity of the ministries of the Russian Empire on the creation of normative acts of subordinate regulatory and legislative character. In the work the traditions of the development of historical forms of regulatory rule-making are determined. The place of the ministries in the implementation of the legislative process of the Russian Empire is denoted. The problems of correlation of normative competence of the ministries and of other subjects of law-making activities of the Russian state in 19 - the beginning of 20 century, including the monarch, the State Council and the State Duma are explored.
The publication is addressed to researchers, students, postgraduate students, teachers of high school, all interested in the problems of law, management and lawmaking.
Over the last two decades city-twinning became quite popular in Northern Europe. This form of coining transborder communality took place particularly in the Nordic countries with their long-standing cooperative experience but included also the Baltic States and Russia. Twinning is viewed by many North European municipalities as an instrument available for both solving local problems and ensuring sustainable development. In some cases it has amounted to a kind of local foreign policy (paradiplomacy).This contribution aims at a critical examination of city twinning through four examples (Tornio–Haparanda, Narva–Ivangorod, Imatra–Svetogorsk, and Valga–Valka). It is argued that city twinning can bridge the ‘trust gaps’ that have traditionally existed at the boundaries of nation-states, and create shared spaces across national borders. In particular, the study seeks to explain whether the causal mechanism behind the examined phenomena is the agency of the cities themselves, or whether these phenomena merely reflect the wider policies of the states to which these cities belong. City twinning is also examined in light of the EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region.
This article examines the role of archivists in shaping the capacity and the structure of a university’s memory. Drawing on sources such as laws and ministerial instructions, the authors analyze the government’s archive policy with regard to universities and how professors and archivists were taking part in its implementation. Their participation included sorting documents and attributing them to individual ‘cases’, destroying some of the ‘unnecessary’ documents and preserving others that were designated for destruction. Based on information from service records and university reports, the article tracks changes in the corporate status of university archivists in nineteenth-century Russia.