ИНТЕР-энциклопедия: биографическая прогулка
This article supplements the section “INTER-encyclopedia” with a description of the “biographical walk” method. This method makes it possible to analyze spatial practices along with the plots of the biography, and also helps to activate the memories of the informant.
At first glance, biographical methods in sociology on the one hand and critical discourse analysis on the other hand occupy opposite positions on the structure-agency spectrum. While biographical sociology assumes great agency on the side of interviewees and examines an interview as text, critical discourse analysis focuses on texts produced in specific institutional frameworks. This paper examines the possibilities and limitations for combining these two approaches in a research project. First, the author juxtaposes the underlying assumptions of biographical research as done by Gabriele Rosenthal and the foundations of critical discourse analysis as done by Siegfried Jäger. Next, the author presents an example of an empirical situation where a combination of the approaches can be methodologically sound for a qualitative research project. The author thus offers a methodological argument for combining biographical sociology with critical discourse analysis, illustrating the merits of such a mixed approach with the example of a study on biographies of Russian-Germans and discourses which surround Russian-German policies in Germany.
The purpose of this perspective on practice is to share my experience conducting an organizational change evaluation using qualitative methodology at a multinational transportation company Global Logistics. I provide a detailed description of the three phase approach to data analysis and my reflections on the process.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.