Socialist construction for Siberia: Comecon and Ust`-Ilimsk forest industrial complex in the USSR, 1970s-80s
This article examines the history of socialist collaboration in Comecon through the lens of a large industrial project in Soviet Siberia. It examines the construction of the Ust`-Ilimsk forest industrial complex which was conceived as a collective effort of six socialist European countries. On the one hand, the project formed part of the Soviet Union’s strategy of technological colonization of Soviet Eastern lands, and on the other, it aimed to enhance socialist collaboration and integration efforts through the exchange of material goods and expertise, as prescribed by the project agreements. The paper focuses on the interplay between ideological implications, national interests and material shortages when completing the project, showing the contradictory nature of socialist collaborative construction. It argues that the Soviet central government sought material resources for the construction from ‘brother’ socialist countries with an ideological emphasis on how important it was for further cooperation in the Eastern bloc. In fact, the project exposed difficulties, ranging from material shortages typical of state socialism and the predominance of national economic interests, with the result that this socialist project was compelled to also make use of Western equipment and expertise, transforming Ust`-Ilimsk from a socialist to a far more international construction site.
The article investigates changes in the size of arable land possessed by particular peasant’s household in Irbitskaya settlement (Western Siberia). It argues that the changes were similar to those among peasants from Central Russia in 19th century. Peasant’s plots changed the size often between 1659 and 1680; by the end of the period only about thirty-five percent householders cultivated plots of the same size. The dynamics in both eras probably stemmed from variations in the number of adult men in households: households with small amount of arable land either expanded or disappeared (that was more probable). In Siberia, however, most of the median households grew larger, whereas in Central Russia the holdings and size of middle strata households did not change significantly
The abduction of women is closely connected with traditional or primitive societies. Anthropologists tie it with alternative marriage arrangements, characteristic of those systems where marriages are arranged by parents; historians tend to view the abduction of women as part of early history of developed nations, mostly the Middle Ages. In Russia, recent historiographical discussion of abductions always starts with descriptions of customary practices in Siberia to highlight the steppe and frontier experiences in the framework of colonization and underline ‘savage’ or ‘backwardness’ of Siberian populations. However, scholars almost never talk about the abduction of women within the European part. In this article, female abductions are analyzed within the framework of citizenship and modernization of the Russian Empire in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. It focuses on the notion of consent and how it contributed to the founding of a new social unit, that is the family, in which women and men acquired their rights and duties in relation to outside society and wider polity. The lack of consent jeopardized the legitimacy of such a union and compromized the citizenship status of its members. On its way to build the country as a modern empire, Russian authorities localized the abduction of women as a ‘customary’ practice of ‘backwards’ people to preserve the modern European core of the Empire.
Based on the administrative and judicial sources of the Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts in Moscow, this paper analyses several aspects of activity of the extraordinary commissions in Siberia, which is a major contribution to the strengthening of the monarchical power and the imperial control on the country’s peripheral provinces during the 18th century. The essential mission of these commissions is to pursue the abuses inside the local administration. Finally, through an analysis of the successes and failures of their investigations, various facets of the reality of the Siberian administration, its social universe, the management practices and its relationships with the native people, just after the conquest of Siberia, will be described. In particular, a great effort is provided by the commissions in order to eradicate the fur trade smuggling developed in the border area between Russia and China to the detriment of the interests of the State. During the years of 1760, these commissions contribute to the realization of the Yasak tax reform which gives a new dimension to the Russian Monarchy’s colonial policy. This reform resulted in the improvement of the administrative and financial structures and mechanisms for a better integration of the Siberian territory and people into the Empire.
The book ‘18th Century Architecture in Siberia’ is the first ultimate monography about the topic. 18thcentury was very special for Siberian architecture for two reasons. Firstly, it was a period when local builders created unique style, that differs from other regional styles of Russian architecture. Secondly, many of buildings of this period had outstanding artistic value, not only on local level, but for the whole country.
The research is focused on brick churches (more then 200) built between late 17th century when the brick architecture starts in Siberia and early 18th century when the last buildings of local taste appear. Unfortunately, very few wooden churches or brick secular buildings remains in Siberia, so any relevant conclusions about their architecture seem impossible. However, the information about these buildings is included in every relevant chapter. A huge amount of data and photos is collected, specially about buildings destroyed or severely damaged during Soviet regime. Most of existing buildings were studied and photographed by the author. Some of architectural monuments will be published for the first time.
In scientific papers included in intercollegiate thematic collection, deals with the problems of history and methodology of bourgeois criticism of historicism, as well as inherited from the methodological, historiographical and source-term issues of Siberia during the first Russian revolution, the October resolution and the Civil War and the Great Patriotic War, historiography of World History, U.S. foreign policy and international youth movement. For academic staff and students.
The paper describes four little-known buildings of the 1770s — church of the Posolski monastery on the lake Baikal, Trinity church in Yeniseisk, Our Lady of Vladimir church in Irkutsk and Our Lady Hodegetria church in Kuznetsk. Research shows that all of them follow the forms of the Irkutsk school. The architecture of the Irkutsk church does not influence other constructions, while the one in Yeniseisk plays a key role in the formation of the local Baroque style. The ‘transfer’ of tradition appears as a phenomenon, that is not typical for Russian provincial architectural schools in the 18s century.