The influence of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) modification on the transport properties and fuel cell performance of Nafion-117 membranes
Nafion-117/PEDOT composite membranes were synthesized by in situ chemical polymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) using ammonium persulfate as an oxidant. The polymerization of EDOT in Nafion membranes for various EDOT/oxidant treatment sequences was studied for the first time. PEDOT introduction leads to a slight decrease in both the ion-exchange capacity and water uptake of the composite membranes, as well as to an increase in cationic transport. Membranes initially treated with an oxidant exhibit better conductivity and lower hydrogen permeability. The effect of both modification of Nafion-117 membranes by PEDOT and hot-pressing of hydrogen-oxygen membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) on the performance of proton-exchange membrane fuel cells was studied. The maximum power density of the fabricated MEAs increases 1.5-fold: from 510 (for a pristine Nafion-117 membrane) to 810 mW cm(-2) (for a membrane modified by PEDOT). The current density at a voltage of 0.4 V reaches 1248 and 2246 mA cm(-2), respectively
In the present paper, the influence of acid–base properties of inorganic particles in ion-exchange membrane-based nanocomposites on their physicochemical and transport properties was investigated. For this purpose, particles of Zr, Ti, and Si oxides have been synthesized in situ in the system of pores and channels of the membranes. Depending on the acid–base properties of oxides, introduction of nanoparticles can increase or decrease the water uptake, conductivity, and selectivity. A new approach to crosslinking of ion-exchange membranes by incorporating ZrO2 particles into their matrix is proposed. Such cross-linking provides an improvement of swelling, conductivity, and salt permselectivity of the membrane in Na+-form. These parameters are important for successful application of such materials in direct and reverse electrodialysis, electrodeionization, and diffusion dialysis. For example, incorporation of 10 wt% of zirconia leads to a Bcross-linking^ of the membrane, i.e., binding of 45–50% of sulfonic groups, accompanied by a decrease of the water uptake by more than twofold and an increase of apparent transport numbers.
The influence of geometrical parameters and fluid properties on the critical pressure of permeation of an oil micro-droplet into a slotted pore is studied numerically by solving the Navier-Stokes equations. We consider a long slotted pore, which is partially blocked by the oil droplet but allows a finite permeate flux. An analytical estimate of the critical permeation pressure is obtained from a force balance model that involves the drag force from the flow around the droplet and surface tension forces as well as the pressure variation inside the pore. It was found that numerical results for the critical pressure as a function of the oil-to-water viscosity ratio, surface tension coefficient, contact angle, and droplet radius agree well with theoretical predictions. Our results show that the critical permeation pressure depends linearly on the surface tension coefficient, while the critical pressure nearly saturates at sufficiently large values of the viscosity ratio or the droplet radius. These findings are important for an optimal design and enhanced performance of microfiltration systems with slotted pores.
We consider the control of vibrations of membranes and plates with a constraint imposed on the absolute value of the control function. The goal of the control is to drive a given mechanical system to the equilibrium point (or the ε-neighborhood of an equilibrium point) in a finite time.
We have performed a comparative analysis of the bio-oil produced by thermal liquefaction of microalgae in different solvents using high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry and GC-MS approach. Water, methanol, ethanol, butanol, isopropanol, acetonitrile, toluene, and hexane were used as solvents in which the liquefaction was performed. It was observed that all resulting oils demonstrate a considerable degree of similarity. For all samples, compounds containing 1 and 2 nitrogen atoms dominated in the positive ESI spectra, while a relative contribution of other compounds was small. In negative ESI mode, compounds having 2 to 7 oxygens were observed. Statistical analysis revealed that products can be combined in two groups depending on the solvent used for the liquefaction. To the first group, we can attribute the products obtained by using protic (alcohols) and to the second by using aprotic (acetonitrile, toluene) solvents. Nevertheless, based on our results, we concluded that solvent possesses a minor impact on molecular composition of bio-oil. We suggested that the driving force of the liquefaction reaction is the thermal dehydration of the carbohydrate in algae, resulting in water formation, which could be the trigger of the producing of bio-oil. To prove this hypothesis, we performed the reaction with the dry algae in the absence of the solvent and observed the formation of bio-oil.
The New Russian Encyclopedia is a fundamental reference publication in 18 volumes that characterizes nature, population, economy, history, science, art, technology and other important aspects. Contains about 60,000 articles, about 30,000 biographies, about 15,000 color illustrations, maps, charts, diagrams, tables. Leaves since 2003.
This volume, being the 55th of this Series, contains a wealth of information on bioactive natural products. In Chapter 1, Watson and colleagues have discussed the synthesis of monoterpene indole alkaloids, an important class of structurally diverse natural products, with respect to conventional and biomimetic synthetic approaches.
Titanocene(III) has been widely used in the synthesis of complex organic molecules and natural products including polyketides, phenylpropanoids, antibiotics, and alkaloids. Oltra and coworkers have provided a review on the stereoselective synthesis of natural products facilitated by titanocene(III) in Chapter 2.
About 70 biologically active macrocyclic bisbibenzyls (MBBs) have been isolated and structurally elucidated during the last 30 years. Song and Zhao, in Chapter 3, have provided a review on the synthesis of MBBs with diverse pharmacological properties.
Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine/metabolic disorder that poses a global health concern. Reyes and colleagues have discussed the hypoglycemic activity of some terrestrial and marine bioactive compounds with potential for treating type 2 diabetes in Chapter 4. In Chapter 5, Pietruszka and coworkers have highlighted the importance of some marine oxylipins that exhibit different bioactive properties.
Depression has become a psychiatric disorder, which leads to various disabilities. Natural compounds like polyphenols and terpenoids have antioxidant and neuroprotective properties and can be used for the treatment of depression. In Chapter 6, Rodrigues et al. review the clinical studies and trials on polyphenols and terpenoids for the treatment of various psychiatric disorders. The lipid A phosphate and their phosphorylated analogues found in Gram-negative bacteria are of major importance because they provide the host with defense against infections from various microorganisms. Paradies and Zimmermann have discussed physical characteristics, isolation, and bioactivity of lipopolysaccharides (lipid A) for developing new vaccines and therapeutics in Chapter 7.
Hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) are a group of phytonutrients with numerous beneficial effects on human health that are largely derived from plants. HCAs play important roles like defense against UV rays or pathogenic attack during growth and development of plants. In Chapter 8, El-Seedi and colleagues present a review focusing on the therapeutic effects of HCAs for the treatment of cancer, diabetes, pulmonary, hepatic, neuro-, and cardiovascular diseases. In Chapter 9, Pomilio and Mercader have presented the study of natural anthocyanins and other related flavonoids for the readers, highlighting their possible and preferable uses as health-protecting food dyes over synthetic ones. They have also discussed the anthocyanins isolated from Ipomoea cairica along with their QSAR studies.
Cardiovascular diseases are considered to be a major threat to health. Polyphenols and carotenoids are structurally diverse groups of bioactive compounds isolated from fruits and vegetables, carrying protective effects against endothelial dysfunction. These therapeutic effects have been explored by Yamagata in Chapter 10.
The roots of licorice and ivy leaves have been used in folk medicine and drugs since long. The biological activity of these complexes has been discussed by Yakovishin and Grishkovets in Chapter 11. In Chapter 12, the chemical and biological characteristics of amicoumacins and xenocoumacins are reviewed by Korshun et al. with reference to the preparation of antibiotics.
I hope that this volume will be received with the same enthusiasm as the earlier volumes of this long-standing series the first volume of which was published under my Editorship in 1988. I would like to express my gratitude to Ms. Taqdees Malik and Mr. Mahmood Alam for their assistance in the preparation of this volume.
The hydrogenation of diphenylacetylene (DPA) on palladium–silver catalysts with a single-atom structure was investigated. It has been shown experimentally that the reaction rate of alkene to alkane hydrogenation is substantially lower than the rate of DPA semi-hydrogenation. The kinetic barriers of all stages of hydrogenation were calculated by the DFT method.
The swelling of a poly (methyl methacrylate) in supercritical carbon dioxide was studied by means of full atomistic classical molecular dynamics simulation. In order to characterize the polymer swelling, we calculated various properties related to the density, structure, and dynamics of polymer chains as a function of the simulation time, temperature, and pressure. In addition, we compared the properties of the macromolecular chains in supercritical CO2 with the properties of the corresponding bulk system at the same temperature and atmospheric pressure. It was shown that diffusion of CO2 molecules into the polymer led to a significant increase in the chain mobility and distances between them. Analysis of diffusion coefficients of CO2 molecules inside and outside the poly(methyl methacrylate) sample has shown that carbon dioxide actively interacts with the functional groups of poly (methyl methacrylate). Joint analysis of the radial distribution functions obtained from classical molecular dynamics and of the averaging interatomic distances from Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics allows us to make a conclusion about the possibility of formation of weak hydrogen bonds between the carbon dioxide oxygen atom and the hydrogen atoms of the polymer methyl groups.